39 School shooters and other school-related violence committed by those under the influence of psychiatric drugs

School shootings and psychiatric drugs: It is not simply school shooters who have been found to be under the influence of or withdrawing from, psychiatric drugs. There are also documented cases of stabbings and other senseless acts of violence where the perpetrator was under the influence of psychiatric drugs documented to cause side effects including, psychosis, mania, hostility, aggression, and in some cases, homicidal ideation.

At least 39 acts of school-related acts of violence, including mass school shootings, have been committed by individuals taking or withdrawing from psychiatric drugs documented in 49 drug regulatory agency warnings to cause mania, psychosis, hostility, aggression, and homicidal ideation.

Fact: At least 39 school shootings and/or school-related acts of violence have been committed by those taking or withdrawing from psychiatric drugs resulting in 200 wounded and 100 killed (in other school shootings, information about their drug use was never made public—neither confirming nor refuting if they were under the influence of prescribed drugs). The most important fact about this list is that these are only cases where the information about their psychiatric drug use was made public. (See full list below)

The below list includes individuals documented to have been under the influence of psychiatric drugs and not only includes mass shootings but the use of knives, swords, and bombs. 49 international drug regulatory agency warnings cite side effects including mania, violence, psychosis, and even homicidal ideation.


  1. May 7, 2019 – Denver, Colorado: Alec McKinney, 16, and Devon Erickson, 18, opened fire on a classroom of students at STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) School Highland Ranch and killed one and injured 8 others. The shootings stopped when three students charged Erickson when his gun jammed. McKinney attempted to commit suicide after the shooting, but couldn’t figure out how to operate the gun safety. McKinney had been hospitalized twice in the previous few years, once for mixing the anti-anxiety drug Xanax (a benzodiazepine) with alcohol and for cutting himself while on vacation, according to witness testimony from Robert Benge, a psychiatric nurse practitioner who counseled McKinney. In 2018, he prescribed McKinney ADHD medication in addition to antidepressants and mood stabilizers that the teen was already taking.[1]
  1. May 14, 2018 – Parkland, Florida: Nikolas Cruz, 19, carried out a deadly shooting at his alma mater, Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida, killing 17 people and injuring 17 more. He had an extraordinarily long history of failed psychiatric assessments and treatment, including psychotropic drugs. He saw his first psychologist at age 3 and psychiatric drugs were prescribed from aged 6 and continued off and on throughout his life.[2] On June 5, 2014, a school psychiatrist and therapist wrote to Cruz’s then-treating psychiatrist, Brett J. Negin warning that Cruz “dreams of killing others.” Negin said that he never received the letter under cross-examination in Cruz’s sentencing trial in 2022, and said: “There is nothing in the record that would signify that whatsoever.”[3] That begs the question of how, even without the letter, a psychiatrist could have treated the teen for five years and missed the warning signs. Between 2012 and 2017, Cruz was prescribed clonidine, a “non-stimulant” ADHD drug, the stimulant Focalin XR (extended-release), and the antipsychotic Risperdal.[4] The stimulant alone has side effects that include anxiety and mental/mood/behavior changes (such as agitation, aggression, mood swings, abnormal thoughts, and thoughts of suicide).[5] For 7 years, Cruz also received hundreds of hours of therapy sessions from Henderson Behavioral Health.[6] On September 24, 2017, 6 weeks after Cruz’s last visit with Dr. Negin, a concerned businessman reported Cruz to the FBI for leaving a message on his YouTube channel: “I’m going to be a professional school shooter.” [7] Five months later, the teen carried out his massacre. While in custody, Cruz sat in a police station—no longer defiant and muttering to himself: “Kill me. Just f**king kill me” and “I want to die.”[8] The end result of 16 years of mental health “treatment.” During his sentencing trial, experts testified that Cruz may not have been taking his medication for the 5 months leading up to the killings, but that was never substantiated, and aggressive post-withdrawal symptoms from some drugs may last several months to years.[9]
  1. May 1, 2017 – Austin, Texas: Kendrex J. White, 21, stabbed four people with a machete-like hunting knife at the University of Texas, killing one and wounding three. The stabbings occurred within a one-block area as the attacker “calmly walked around the plaza,” according to the chief of police. After he was arrested, White told police he did not remember the attack. The police department said that White had recently been involuntarily committed in another city, and county records showed that he had been arrested and charged with a DWI (Driving While Intoxicated) on April 4, 2017. When an officer spoke to him, White said he had taken two “happy pills,” listed as the antidepressant Zoloft.[10]
  1. November 20, 2014 – Tallahassee, Florida: 31-year-old Myron May, a Florida State University alum, opened fire in the school’s library where hundreds of students were studying, wounding three before he was shot and killed by police. According to May’s friends, after going to see a psychologist because of trouble concentrating, he had been prescribed the antidepressant Wellbutrin and the ADHD drug Vyvanse, a combination that can cause paranoia. He started acting strangely and hearing voices, convinced that he was being spied on. He then checked himself into a mental health center called Mesilla Valley Hospital around September of 2014. Shortly after this, his friends discovered a new pill bottle among his prescriptions, the antipsychotic Seroquel. In addition, ABC Action News found a half-filled prescription for the antianxiety drug Hydroxyzine in his apartment after the shooting.[11]
  1. June 5, 2014 – Seattle, Washington: 26-year-old Aaron Ybarra opened fire with a shotgun at Seattle Pacific University, killing one student and wounding two others. Ybarra planned to kill as many people as possible and then kill himself. In 2012, Ybarra reported that he had been prescribed the antidepressant Prozac and the antipsychotic Risperdal. A report from his counselor in December 2013 said that he was taking Prozac at the time and planned to continue to meet with his psychiatrist and therapist as needed. His lawyer said Ybarra had a long history of mental health issues. The county prosecutor said he was taking Prozac and Risperdal up to six months prior to the shooting but had stopped taking them.[12]
  1. April 25, 2014 – Milford, Connecticut: 16-year-old Chris Plaskon stabbed Maren Sanchez, also 16, to death in a stairwell at Jonathan Law High School after she turned down his prom invitation. According to classmates and a former close friend, Chris was taking drugs for ADHD.[13]
  1. October 21, 2013 – Sparks, Nevada: 12-year-old Jose Reyes opened fire at Sparks Middle School, killing a teacher and wounding two classmates before committing suicide. The investigation revealed that he had been seeing a psychotherapist 3 days before the shooting and was prescribed an antidepressant. He had a generic form of the antidepressant Prozac (fluoxetine) in his system at the time of death, police said.[14]
  1. January 15, 2013 – St. Louis, Missouri: 34-year-old Sean Johnson walked onto the Stevens Institute of Business & Arts campus and shot the school’s financial aid director once in the chest, then shot himself in the torso. Johnson had been taking prescribed drugs for an undisclosed mental illness.[15]
  1. October 24, 2011 – Snohomish County, Washington: A unnamed 15-year-old girl went to Snohomish High School where police alleged that she stabbed a girl as many as 25 times just before the start of school, and then stabbed another girl who tried to help her injured friend. Prior to the attack, the girl had been taking “medication” and seeing a psychiatrist. Court documents said the girl was being treated for depression.[16]
  1. September 21, 2011 – Myrtle Beach, South Carolina: 14-year-old Christian Helms had two pipe bombs in his backpack when he shot and wounded Socastee High School’s “resource” (police) officer. However, the officer was able to stop the student before he could do anything further. Evidence showed that he was planning an attack similar to the Columbine High School shooting and had even made a list of who he was going to kill. Helms had been taking drugs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and depression.[17]
  1. December 13, 2010 – Planoise, France: An unnamed 17-year-old youth held twenty preschool children and their teacher hostage with two swords for hours at Charles Fourier preschool. The teen was reported to be on “medication for depression.” Eventually, all the children and the teacher were released safely.[18]
  1. February 5, 2010 – Huntsville, Alabama: 15-year-old Hammad Memon shot and killed another Discover Middle School student Todd Brown. Memon had a history of being treated for ADHD and depression.  He was taking the antidepressant Zoloft and “other drugs for the conditions.” He had also been seeing a psychiatrist and psychologist.[19]
  1. September 23, 2008 – Kauhajoki, Finland: 22-year-old culinary student Matti Saari shot and killed 9 students and a teacher, and wounded another student, before killing himself. Saari was taking an SSRI and alprazolam (Xanax). He was also seeing a psychologist.[20]
  1. April 24, 2008 – Fresno, California: 17-year-old Jesus “Jesse” Carrizales attacked an officer at Fresno high school, hitting him in the head with a baseball bat. After knocking the officer down, the officer shot Carrizales in self-defense, killing him. Carrizales had been prescribed Lexapro and Geodon, and his autopsy showed that he had a high dose of the antidepressant Lexapro in his blood that could have caused him to be paranoid, according to the coroner.[21]
  1. February 14, 2008 – DeKalb, Illinois: 27-year-old Steven Kazmierczak shot and killed five people and wounded 21 others before killing himself in a Northern Illinois University auditorium. According to his girlfriend, he had recently been taking prescribed drugs Prozac, Xanax and Ambien but had stopped taking Prozac three weeks before the shooting. Toxicology results showed that he still had a trace amount of Xanax in his system. He had been seeing a psychiatrist.[22]
  1. November 7, 2007 – Jokela, Finland: 18-year-old Finnish gunman Pekka-Eric Auvinen shot and killed eight people and wounded a dozen more at Jokela High School in southern Finland before committing suicide. He had been taking antidepressants.[23]
  1. November 7, 2007 – Tyler, Texas: 17-year-old Felicia McMillan returned to her former Robert E. Lee High School campus and stabbed a male student, and wounded the principal with a knife. McMillan had been on drugs for depression and had just taken them the night before the incident.[24]
  1. October 10, 2007 – Cleveland, Ohio: 14-year-old Asa Coon stormed through his school with a gun in each hand, shooting and wounding four before taking his own life. Coon had been prescribed the antidepressant Trazodone.[25]
  1. January 19, 2007 – Sudbury, Massachusetts: 16-year-old John Odgren stabbed another student to death with a large kitchen knife in a boy’s bathroom at Lincoln-Sudbury Regional High School. In court, his father testified that Odgren was prescribed the drug Ritalin.[26]
  1. December 4, 2006 – North Vernon, Indiana: 16-year-old Travis Roberson stabbed another Jennings County High School student in the neck, nearly severing an artery. Roberson was in withdrawal from Wellbutrin, which he had stopped taking days before the attack.[27]
  1. August 30, 2006 – Hillsborough, North Carolina: 19-year-old Alvaro Rafael Castillo shot and killed his father, then drove to Orange High School where he opened fire. Two students were injured in the shooting, which ended when school personnel tackled him. His mother said he was on drugs for depression.[28]
  1. April 24, 2006 – Chapel Hill, North Carolina: 17-year-old William Barrett Foster took a shotgun to school and took a teacher and a fellow student hostage at East Chapel Hill High School. After being talked out of shooting the hostages, Foster fired two shots through a classroom window before fleeing the school on foot. Foster’s father testified that his son had stopped taking his antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs without telling him.[29]
  1. November 8, 2005– Jacksboro, Tennessee: Kenneth Bartley, 14, a student at Campbell County Comprehensive School, shot and killed the assistant principal and wounded another assistant principal and the principal. He was taking Xanax at the time of the shooting. Just before the shooting, Bartley had also snorted a crushed Valium pill.[30]
  1. March 21, 2005 – Red Lake, Minnesota: 16-year-old Jeff Weise, on Prozac, shot and killed his grandfather and his grandfather’s girlfriend, then went to his school on the Red Lake Indian Reservation where he shot dead 5 students, a security guard, and a teacher, and wounded 7 before killing himself.[31]
  1. February 9, 2004 – Greenbush, New York: 16-year-old Jon Romano strolled into his high school in east Greenbush and opened fire with a shotgun. Special education teacher Michael Bennett was hit in the leg. Romano had been taking the antianxiety drug Xanax. He had previously spent time in a psychiatric care facility.[32]
  1. June 8, 2001 – Ikeda, Japan: 37-year-old Mamoru Takuma, wielding a 6-inch knife, slipped into an elementary school and stabbed eight first- and second-grade students to death while wounding at least 15 other pupils and teachers. He then turned the knife on himself but suffered only superficial wounds. He later told interrogators that before the attack he had taken 10 times his normal dose of antidepressants. Police said he had been under the care of a psychiatrist.[33]
  1. April 10, 2001 – Wahluke, Washington: Sixteen-year-old Cory Baadsgaard took a rifle to his high school and held 23 classmates and a teacher hostage. Three weeks earlier, his doctor had switched Baadsgaard’s prescription from Paxil to Effexor. The morning of the incident, his dosage of Effexor had been increased. Baadsgaard said he had no memory of the incident.[34]
  1. March 22, 2001 – El Cajon, California: 18-year-old Jason Hoffman, on the antidepressants Celexa and Effexor, opened fire on his classmates, wounding three students and two teachers at Granite Hills High School. He had been seeing a psychiatrist before the shooting.[35]
  1. March 7, 2001 – Williamsport, Pennsylvania: 14-year-old Elizabeth Bush was taking the antidepressant Prozac when she shot at fellow students, wounding one.[36]
  1. February 2, 2001 – Red Lion, Pennsylvania: 56-year-old William Michael Stankewicz entered North Hopewell-Winterstown Elementary School with a machete, leaving three adults and 11 children injured. Stankewicz was taking four different drugs for depression and anxiety weeks before the attacks.[37]
  1. January 10, 2001 – Oxnard, California: 17-year-old Richard Lopez went to Hueneme High School with a gun and shot twice at a car in the school’s parking lot before taking a female student hostage. A SWAT officer eventually killed Lopez, who had been prescribed Prozac, Paxil and “drugs that helped him go to sleep.”[38]
  1. May 20, 1999 – Conyers, Georgia: 15-year-old T.J. Solomon was being treated with the stimulant Ritalin when he opened fire on and wounded six of his classmates.[39]
  1. April 20, 1999 – Columbine, Colorado: 18-year-old Eric Harris and his accomplice, Dylan Klebold, killed 12 students and a teacher and wounded 26 others before killing themselves. Harris was on the antidepressant Luvox. Klebold’s medical records remain sealed. Both shooters had been in anger-management classes and had undergone counseling. Harris had been seeing a psychiatrist before the shooting.[40]
  1. April 16, 1999 – Notus, Idaho: 15-year-old Shawn Cooper fired two shotgun rounds in his school, injuring one student. He was taking a prescribed antidepressant and Ritalin.[41]
  1. May 21, 1998 – Springfield, Oregon: 15-year-old Kip Kinkel murdered his parents and then proceeded to school where he opened fire on students in the cafeteria, killing two and wounding 25. Kinkel had been taking the antidepressant Prozac. Kinkel had been attending “anger control classes” and had previously been under the care of a psychologist.[42]
  1. October 1, 1997 – Pearl, Mississippi:Luke Woodham, 16, shot and killed two students at Pearl High School and wounded seven others after beating and stabbing his mother to death. Public reports said the boy was taking Prozac. In June 1998, Woodham was found guilty of two counts of murder and seven counts of aggravated assault and was sentenced to two consecutive life sentences for the murder convictions and seven 20-year sentences for the aggravated assault convictions.[43]
  1. October 12, 1995 – Blackville, South Carolina: 15-year-old Toby R. Sincino slipped into the Blackville-Hilda High School’s rear entrance, where he shot two Blackville-Hilda High School teachers, killing one. Then Toby killed himself moments later. His aunt, Carolyn McCreary, said he had been undergoing counseling with the Department of Mental Health and was taking Zoloft for emotional problems.[44]
  1. December 16, 1993 – Chelsea, Michigan: 39-year-old chemistry teacher Stephen Leith, facing a disciplinary matter at Chelsea High School, shot Superintendent Joseph Piasecki to death, shot Principal Ron Mead in the leg, and slightly wounded journalism teacher Phil Jones. Leith was taking Prozac and had been seeing a psychiatrist.[45]
  1. September 18, 1992 – Houston, Texas: 44-year-old Calvin Charles Bell, reportedly upset about his child’s second-grade progress report, appeared in the principal’s office of Piney Point Elementary School. Bell fired a gun in the school and eventually wounded two officers before surrendering. Relatives told police that Bell was an unemployed Vietnam veteran and had been taking anti-depressants.[46]


[1] Sam Tabachnik, “Accused STEM shooter was on and off meds, previously suspended from school, witnesses testify,” Canon City Daily Record, 19 Nov. 2019, https://www.canoncitydailyrecord.com/2019/11/19/alec-mckinney-stem-shooting-reverse-transfer-hearing/

[2] https://www.cchrint.org/florida-school-shooter-timeline/; “Parkland school shooter’s defense calls witnesses who saw pregnant mother use alcohol, drugs,” Local 10 News, 23 Aug. 2022, https://www.local10.com/news/local/2022/08/22/opening-statements-begin-for-defense-in-parkland-school-shooters-penalty-phase-trial/; Hannah Phillips, “Nikolas Cruz sentencing trial live updates, Day 13: Gunman’s pre-school teacher recalls aggression,” The Palm Beach Post, 22 Aug. 2022, https://www.palmbeachpost.com/story/news/courts/2022/08/22/parkland-shooting-nikolas-cruz-trial-defense-describes-cruzs-troubled-childhood/7863808001/

[3]“Psychiatrist who treated Cruz says he never received school’s warning letter,” Local 10 News, 26 Aug. 2022, https://www.local10.com/news/local/2022/08/26/psychiatrist-who-treated-cruz-says-he-never-received-schools-letter-warning-of-obsession-with-guns-killing/

[4]“Psychiatrist who treated Cruz says he never received school’s warning letter,” Local 10 News, 26 Aug. 2022, https://www.local10.com/news/local/2022/08/26/psychiatrist-who-treated-cruz-says-he-never-received-schools-letter-warning-of-obsession-with-guns-killing/

[5] https://www.rxlist.com/focalin-xr-side-effects-drug-center.htm

[6] https://cbs12.com/news/local/mental-health-facility-cleared-in-parkland-lawsuit

[7] Maria Perez and Brett Murphy, “A timeline of Nikolas Cruz’s activities leading up to the mass school shooting in Parkland, Florida,” Naples Daily News, 27 Feb. 2018, https://www.naplesnews.com/story/news/crime/2018/02/27/timeline-nikolas-cruzs-activities-leading-up-mass-school-shooting-broward-county/377021002/

[8] https://www.flmhlaw.com/burn-kill-destroy-parkland-mass-shooter-claimed-demons-drove-violence-miami-herald/

[9] https://www.palmbeachpost.com/story/news/courts/2022/08/30/nikolas-cruz-sentencing-trial-defense-week-two/7937396001/; https://www.karger.com/Article/Fulltext/506868

[10] Ryan Autullo, “AFFIDAVIT: Man charged in UT stabbings said he didn’t remember attack,” Statesman, 3 May 2017, www.statesman.com/news/crime–law/affidavit-man-charged-stabbings-said-didn-remember-attack/MwXtfv9YT2x0TxyaWnK3kL/; Calily Bien, “What we know about the university of Texas stabbing suspect,” KXAN (local NBC station), 1 May 2017 updated 4 May 2017, www.kxan.com/2017/05/01/what-we-know-about-the-university-of-texas-stabbing-suspect/; Jim Vertuno, “Police ID student as attacker with hunting knife who killed 1, wounded 3 at University of Texas,” Associated Press, 1 May 2017, www.theadvocate.com/nation_world/article_fdb1976e02ea6-11e7-ace4-6b55d5805068.html?1493673294549.

[11] Michael Laforgia, “FSU shooter’s friends tried to get help for him months before the shooting,” Miami Herald, 22 Nov 2014, http://www.miamiherald.com/news/state/florida/article4064977.html; Jordan Culver, et al., “Shooter identified as Florida State alum Myron May,” Tallahassee Democrat, 21 Nov 2014, http://www.tallahassee.com/story/news/local/fsu-news/2014/11/20/shooter-identified-fsu-alum-myron-may/70007494/; Family of Myron May say the suspected FSU shooter planned on cooking Thanksgiving dinner,” ABC Action News, 20 Nov 2014, http://www.abcactionnews.com/news/region-tampa/family-of-myron-may-say-the-suspected-fsu-shooter-planned-on-cooking-thanksgiving-dinner

[12] “Seattle Pacific University shooting: Gunman says he “wanted to kill many more,” The Independent, 9 Jun 2014, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/seattle-pacific-university-shooting-gunman-says-he-wanted-to-kill-many-more-9505394.html; “Suspect in Seattle Pacific killing had well-documented demons,” The Seattle Times, 6 Jun 2014, http://seattletimes.com/html/localnews/2023788483_spususpectprofilexml.html; Steve Miletich, et al., “Report: SPU suspect ‘wanted to hurt himself and others’ in 2010,” The Seattle Times, 6 Jun 2014, http://blogs.seattletimes.com/today/2014/06/police-source-spu-suspect-has-fascination-with-mass-shootings/; Travis Mayfield, “Prosecutor to pursue life in prison for accused SPU shooter who ‘wanted to feel the hate’,” Fox 13 Seattle, 10 June 2014, https://www.q13fox.com/news/prosecutor-to-pursue-life-in-prison-for-accused-spu-shooter-who-wanted-to-feel-the-hate.

[13] Michael Zennie, “EXCLUSIVE: Boy, 16, who stabbed girl to death after she refused to go to prom because she was dating his friend ‘was depressed and on heavy meds’, devastated classmates reveal,” Daily Mail, 26 Apr 2014, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2613894/Pictured-The-boy-16-stabbed-friend-death-refused-prom-going-boyfriend.html; Vivian Yee and Nate Schweber, “Suspect in School Attack Once Turned to Victim for Help, Friends Say,” The New York Times, 27 Apr 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/28/nyregion/suspect-in-school-attack-had-sought-help-from-victim-friends-say.html?hpw&rref=nyregion&_r=1.

[14] “Police: Nevada school shooter said he was teased,” The Washington Post, 13 May 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/police-complete-nevada-schoolyard-shooting-probe/2014/05/13/235a23a6-dabc-11e3-a837-8835df6c12c4_story.html; “Nevada school shooter left 2 suicide notes,” USA Today, 13 May 2014, www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/05/13/nevada-shooter-suicide-notes/9063429/.

[15] Jim Salter, “Sean Johnson Charged With Assault In Stevens Institute Of Business And Arts In St. Louis Shooting,” Huffington Post, January 16, 2013, www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/01/16/sean-johnson-assault-st-louis_n_2489249.html.

[16] Joel Moreno, “Doctors amazed that Snohomish girl survived knife attack,” KomoNews.com, October 28, 2011, http://www.komonews.com/news/local/132829548.html; Diana Hefley, “Snohomish stabbing victims allegedly chosen at random; charges due Wednesday,” HeraldNet.com, October 25, 2011, http://heraldnet.com/article/20111025/NEWS01/710259877/-1/COMM01; Diana Hefley, “Suspect in stabbings at Snohomish school continues to talk about violent, disturbing acts,” HeraldNet.com, March 1, 2012, http://www.heraldnet.com/article/20120301/NEWS01/703019923.

[17] Harriet McLeod, “South Carolina teen faces adult charges for school attack,” Reuters, March 18, 2011, http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/18/us-crime-pipebomb-teen-idUSTRE72H7VO20110318; Joel Allen, “Students welcome Officer Karney back to Socastee High,” CarolinaLive.com, September 28, 2010, http://www.carolinalive.com/news/story.aspx?id=517984#.UQmYqb_CmW.

[18] Carol Anne Hunt, “Teenager holds school children hostage in France,” indiepropub.com, December 13, 2010, http://ssristories.com/show.php?item=4698.

[19] “Court Documents Reveal More About Shooting Suspect Hammad Memon,” waaytv.com, July 11, 2011, http://ssristories.com/show.php?item=5007; Jeanie Powell, “Madison sounds off on whether teen suspect should be treated as an adult,” waff.com, 48 News, August 5, 2010, http://www.waff.com/Global/story.asp?S=12757793.

[20] Nick Allen, “Finland school shooting: Gunman Matti Saari made phone call during slaughter,” The Telegraph, September 26, 2008, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/finland/3083996/Finland-school-shooting-Gunman-Matti-Saari-made-phone-call-during-slaughter.html; “Kauhajoki School Shooting on 23 September 2008,” Report of the Investigation Commission, Translation of the Finnish original report, http://goo.gl/XCOAq; Laura L. Finley, Encyclopedia of School Crime and Violence, (Abc-Clio Inc, September 2011), pg. 401.

[21] Pablo Lopez, “Autopsy report suggests teen wasn’t taking meds properly,” The Fresno Bee, May 16, 2008, http://ssristories.com/show.php?item=2475; “Relatives Say School Failed to Help Depressed Fresno Student Killed By Police,” FoxNews.com, April 17, 2008, http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,351661,00.html.

[22] “Report of the February 14, 2008 Shootings at Northern Illinois University,” NIU, http://www.niu.edu/feb14report/; “Girlfriend: Shooter was taking cocktail of 3 drugs,” CNN, February 20, 2008, http://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/02/20/shooter.girlfriend/index.html; Dave Newbart, “NIU shooter had trace amounts of drugs in system,” The Chicago Sun-Times, March 15, 2008, http://schoolshooters.wordpress.com/2008/03/15/41/#more-41.

[23] Marius Turula, “Finns ponder society after deadly shootings,” Associated Press, September 24, 2008, http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1A1-D93D8EQ01.html; “Nine Dead in School Schooting,” yle.fi, July 11, 2007, http://yle.fi/uutiset/nine_dead_in_school_shooting/5808567.

[24] Casey Knaupp, “Ex-Student Sentenced For Attacks On Campus,” TylerPaper.com/Tyler Morning Telegraph, February 28, 2008, http://www.tylerpaper.com/article/20080228/NEWS08/802280303.

[25] Scott Stephens and Rachel Dissell, “Who was Asa Coon?” Cleveland.com, Octover 10, 2007, http://blog.cleveland.com/metro/2007/10/who_was_asa_coon.html; Christopher Maag, “Short but Troubled Life Ended in Shooting and Suicide,” The New York Times, October 12, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/12/us/12cleveland.html?_r=0.

[26] “Odgren’s father says son didn’t remember attack,” Telegram.com, April 21, 2010, www.telegram.com/article/20100421/NEWS/100429941/1116.

[27] ROBERSON v. STATE, 900 N.E.2d 446 (2009), No. 40A01-0711-CR-500, Court of Appeals of Indiana, January 29, 2009, http://www.ai.org/judiciary/opinions/pdf/01290902cjb.pdf; “Authorities: Teen’s Knife Attack At School Was Planned,” The Indy Channel, December 5, 2006, http://ssristories.com/show.php?item=1342.

[28] “Accused school shooter’s mother, sister testify,” WRAL.com, August 11, 2009, http://www.wral.com/news/local/story/5770869/; Michelle Tan, “Accused killer was N.C. Guard recruit,” Army Times, August 31, 2006, http://www.armytimes.com/legacy/new/1-292925-2072460.php.

[29] Meiling Arounnarath, “Forum to ponder school gun incidents, Fraser will discuss the situation nationally and locally,” NewsObserver.com, posted November 28, 2006, http://ssristories.com/show.php?item=1310; Leah Friedman, “Police keep tabs on teen suspect,” NewsObserver.com, February 24, 2007, http://www.newsobserver.com/2007/02/24/49229/police-keep-tabs-on-teen-suspect.html; “Student Charged In April Hostage Incident At Chapel Hill School,” WRAL.com, June 19, 2006, http://www.wral.com/news/local/story/1055759/.

[30] Petition for Post-Conviction Relief, Kenneth Bartley v State of Tennessee, 18 Oct. 2010, pp. 5-7.

[31] Daphne Bramham, “Teen gunman given Prozac for depression,” Vancouver Sun April 1, 2005; P.J. Huffstutter, “2nd Teen Is Linked to School Shooting,” Los Angeles Times, March 29, 2005, http://articles.latimes.com/2005/mar/29/nation/na-redlake29; “Teen who killed 9 claimed Nazi leanings,” NBC, MSNBC.com, March 23, 2005, http://www.nbcnews.com/id/7259823/ns/us_news-crime_and_courts/t/teen-who-killed-claimed-nazi-leanings/#.UQmOpr_CmWc.

[32] Bob Gardinier, “Legal doorway closes for Columbia gunman; Judges say high school shooter gave up right of appeal in plea deal,” The Times Union, November 2, 2007, http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-170758537.html; Ryan T. Fitzpatrick, “Appellate Division upholds DeAngelis’ Romano conviction,” The Record, November 02, 2007, http://ssristories.com/show.php?item=489.

[33] Sharon Moshavi, “Killings shake Japan’s sense of safety,” Boston Globe, June 9, 2001, http://www.antidepressantsfacts.com/MamoruTakuma.htm.

[34] Linda Vester, Douglas Kennedy, Steve Harrigan, Fox on the Record with Greta Van Susteren, November 25, 2002; Elizabeth Shogren, “FDA Probes Downside of Antidepressants,” Los Angeles Times, March 21, 2004, http://articles.latimes.com/2004/mar/21/nation/na-violent21; Martha Irvine, “Wash. School Deals With Gun Incident,” Associated Press, April 28, 2001, http://www.apnewsarchive.com/2001/Wash-School-Deals-With-Gun-Incident/id-623899cd241f3809d666b4767088ea3f.

[35] “Granite Hills gunman was seeing psychiatrist, attorney says,” Associated Press State, April 19, 2001.

[36] “Girl sentenced in school shooting – Elizabeth C. Bush – Brief Article,” National Catholic Reporter, April 20, 2001, http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-73827824.html; Linda Vester, Douglas Kennedy, Steve Harrigan, Fox on the Record with Greta Van Susteren, November 25, 2002; Bob Unruh, “Are Drugs to Blame For Virginia Tech Rampage?” Whistleblower, Vol. 16, No. 7, July 2007, pg. 5, http://www.wnd.com/2007/07/42434/.

[37] “Heroic educators wrestle machete from attacker: An elementary school principal sustained serious cuts to her hands as she tried to protect her students,” York Daily Record, February 3, 2001, http://www.ydr.com/ci_20325161; Rick Lee, “Machete wielder pleads guilty Stankewicz still blames his ex-wife and York County for his attack on children,” York Daily Record, September 26, 2001, http://ssristories.com/show.php?item=1366.

[38] Steve Chawkins, Anna Gorman, “Police Kill Armed Teenager at High School,” Los Angeles Times, January 11, 2001, http://articles.latimes.com/2001/jan/11/local/me-11081; Tamara Koehler and Letisia Marquez, “Lack of help for mentally ill decried,” Ventura County Star, January 13, 2001.

[39] John Cloud, “Just A Routine School Shooting,” TIME, May 31, 1999,  http://europe.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/time/1999/05/24/school.shooting.html.

[40] Jodi Wilgoren, “Terror In Littleton: The Investigation,” The New York Times, April 29, 1999, http://www.nytimes.com/1999/05/01/us/terror-littleton-investigation-little-was-done-complaints-littleton-file.html; Hon. William H. Erickson, Chairman, “The Report of Governor Bill Owens’” Columbine Review Commission, May 2001, http://www.state.co.us/columbine/Columbine_20Report_WEB.pdf; Sean Murphy, “Jury selection for Underwood taking longer than expected,” NewsOK, February 22, 2008, http://newsok.com/jury-selection-for-underwood-taking-longer-than-expected/article/3207220;  Kelly Patricia O’Meara, “Prescription Drugs May Trigger Killing,” Insight On The News, September 2, 2002, http://www.ssristories.com/show.php?item=190; “School Gunman Was Seeing a Psychiatrist,” MSNBC, April 28.

[41] Douglas Montero, “Killer Teens Had Prescription For Murder,” The New York Post, May 10, 1999, http://www.nypost.com/p/news/item_2jHYmlhhJ9aVxdJKC7tchK; Bob Unruh, “Are Drugs to Blame For Virginia Tech Rampage?” Whistleblower, Vol. 16, No. 7, July 2007, pg. 5, http://www.wnd.com/2007/07/42434/.

[42] State Of Oregon, v. Kipland Philip Kinkel, 20-98-09574; A108593, October 16, 2002, http://www.publications.ojd.state.or.us/docs/A108593.htm; Kevin Johnson, “FBI: Schools need to assess violence risks,” USA Today, September 7, 2000; Maureen Sielaff, “Prozac Implicated in Oregon School Shooting,” The Vigo Examiner, May 30, 1998, http://www.antidepressantsfacts.com/KipKinkel.htm.

[43] “Teen guilty in Mississippi school-shooting rampage,” CNN, 12 Jun. 1998, http://www.cnn.com/US/9806/12/school.shooting.verdict/; “Prescription antidepressant medications linked in most teen deaths and school shootings,” CNN iReport, 13 Jan. 2013, http://ireport.cnn.com/docs/DOC-909779.

[44] James R. Langford, “Teen’s Life Full Of Contradictions – The 15-Year-Old Who Shot Two Teachers And Then Himself Hinted That He Would Not Be Alive Much Longer,” The Augusta Chronicle, October 22, 1995, http://ssristories.com/show.php?item=1568.

[45] Letter from Stephen Leith submitted to the Food and Drug Administration, March 22, 2000, http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dailys/00/apr00/040600/c01.pdf; “Schoolteacher arraigned in shooting death,” Austin American-Statesman, December 18, 1993, http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=AASB&p_theme=aasb&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_hidethis=no&p_field_label-0=Author&p_field_label-1=title&p_bool_label-1=AND&p_text_label-1=Schoolteacher%20arraigned%20in%20shooting&s_dispstring=headline(Schoolteacher%20arraigned%20in%20shooting)%20AND%20date(all)&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&xcal_useweights=no; “In transition or tragedy, students get Chelsea High School principal’s focus,” mlive.com, April 14, 2008, http://blog.mlive.com/annarbornews/2008/04/in_transition_or_tragedy_stude.html; Mitch Albom, “Farewell, Golden Boytragic Ending To A Good Life,” Detroit Free Press, December 30, 1993, http://mitchalbom.com/d/journalism/2726/farewell-golden-boytragic-ending-good-life.

[46] Lisa Teachey, Ruth Piller, “Shooting suspect arraigned; 1 officer released from hospital,” Houston Chronicle, September 20, 1992, http://ssristories.com/show.php?item=1586.