Other Murders/Murder-Suicides Committed by Individuals on Psychiatric Drugs


School-related acts of violence aren’t the only cases commonly found to be under the influence of psychiatric drugs. There have been 64 acts of senseless violence committed by individuals taking or withdrawing from psychiatric drugs resulting in 432 dead and 773 wounded:

  1. November 19-20, 2022 – Colorado Springs, Colorado: Anderson Lee Aldrich (22) fatally shot five people and wounded 19 others at an LGBTQ nightclub. Police received several 911 calls about the shooting beginning at 11:56 p.m. local time and officers were dispatched with one officer arriving at the club at midnight. Aldrich was detained at 12:02 a.m., according to police. During a preliminary hearing, the defense showed photos of various prescription bottles collected by the FBI from Aldrich’s apartment. The purposes of the medications range from “treating symptoms of depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, nightmares from PTSD, bipolar disorder, and heroin addiction.” The defense, however, stated that law enforcement would not know if the suspect was off this medication or taking them at the time of the shooting. But it was reported that on the night of the shooting, Aldrich had consumed four grams of cocaine, two pills of Adderall, and six Xanax bars.[1]
  2. May 26, 2021 – San Jose, California: Samuel Cassidy, 57, fatally shot nine coworkers at a Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) rail yard before killing himself as law enforcement rushed the shooting scene.[2] Cesar Chavez Quinteros, a friend of Cassidy, told DailyMail.com that Cassidy suffered from depression and was on medication: “I know he had some issues with depression and was on meds,” Quinteros said.[3]
  3. April 5, 2021 – Allen, Texas: Brothers Farhan (19) and Tanvir Towhid (21) killed four members of their family before then killing themselves in a murder-suicide pact. The family members killed were their sister, Farbin Towhid, their parents, Iren and Towhidul Islam, and their grandmother, Altafun Nessa. In a suicide note left on Instagram, Farhan Towhid wrote, “All my brother had to do was go to the gunshop, say something about wanting a gun for home defense, sign some forms, and that was it. There was a question asking if he had any mental illnesses but—get this—he lied. He literally just said no. They didn’t ask for proof or if he was taking any medication (he was),” he wrote. He continued, “I’ve had depression since 9th grade (2016).” Farhan said his brother’s condition “was much worse.” He also wrote: “Eventually I was thrown in some teen mental camp where I was finally diagnosed and got medication (25mg of desvenlafaxine if you’re curious)….”[4]
  1. June 12, 2020 – Te Teko, New Zealand: Tehiritanga​ “Hiri” Hill, 24, took a hammer and struck his mother’s partner, Pania Melrose, eight or nine times about the head and face, fatally wounding her. She died shortly afterwards. Just two days before the incident, Hiri’s father took him back to the GP and he was given risperidone, an antipsychotic. He’d never taken such medication before, she says, and it made him worse.[5]
  1. January 24, 2020 – Newcastle, South Dublin, Ireland: Deirdre Morley, 44, smothered and killed her two sons Conor, 9, and Darragh, 7, and her three-year-old daughter Carla McGinley in their family home. She had been taking antidepressants since October 2018 and was admitted to St. Patrick’s Mental Health Services on July 6, 2019, but was discharged after a short period, but was put on a combination of two antidepressants and a sedative.[6]
  1. August 4, 2019 Dayton, Oregon: Connor Betts, 24, opened fire outside a bar in the Oregon District of Dayton at 1 a.m., killing nine people, including Bett’s 22-year-old sister. The shooting ended rapidly when police moved in and shot Betts dead. The county coroner reported that Betts had cocaine, Xanax and alcohol in his system at the time of the shooting rampage.[7]
  1. January 26, 2019 – Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Dakota Theriot, 21, is accused of killing five people in Louisiana on January 26th, 2019, using a handgun stolen from his father. The victims include his parents and three members of a family with whom he’d been living for a short time. Investigators said he smoked weed and drank alcohol that mixed poorly with the antipsychotic drugs he’d been prescribed. His wife had told police he was diagnosed with schizophrenia.[8]
  1. December 17, 2018 – Providence, Massachusetts: Andrew Soto-Bonnett, 27, stabbed his mother a dozen times in her head, neck, and face, and stabbed her husband six times in his upper body and torso. Luckily, they both survived. Soto-Bonnett told police he was schizophrenic but that he takes his “medication.”[9]
  1. July 25, 2018 – Phoenix, Arizona: Isaac Damon King, 20, suspected of throwing objects at cars, fatally shot Arizona Department of Public Safety (DPS) Trooper Tyler Edenhofer (24) and wounded another trooper. King had no criminal history but did have a mental health history and was on “medication for anxiety and depression.”[10]
  1. July 7, 2018 – Melbourne, Australia: Daniel Eckersley, 39, a Melbourne, Australia man, stabbed his partner, Amanda Harris, to death in front of their young children before setting fire to their family home. Prosecutor Brendan Kissane said Eckersley had sought medical assistance for depression in the week before the murder and began taking antidepressants on top of pain medication he was abusing.[11]
  1. June 14, 2018 – Westminster, Colorado: Jeremy Webster, 23, killed a 13-year-old and injured the boy’s mother and brother in a road rage shooting. A man in another car was also shot. Webster is accused of shooting the mother multiple times and then shooting Vaughn Bigelow Jr. “execution-style” and then driving away. Webster has a psychiatric history and had changed medication that day. Webster had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder and had been prescribed an antidepressant and an antipsychotic.[12]
  1. May 11, 2018 Osmington, Western Australia: Peter Miles, 61, shot his 35-year-old daughter and four grandchildren, aged 8 through 13, while they slept in their beds, in a shed that had been converted to a second house on the property. He then turned the gun on his 58-year-old wife in the living room of their house, before placing a call to police alerting them to his crimes. When they arrived, Miles was also found dead from a gunshot wound. Miles had started taking antidepressant medication just weeks before.[13]
  1. April 6, 2018 – Wadsworth, Ohio: Gavon Ramsay, 17, strangled his neighbor, 98-year-old Margaret Douglas in her own home. His parents blame his actions on his having been misprescribed Zoloft. After a report by his school principal that the teen was depressed and might harm himself, he “returned to therapy,” and after a recommendation by a psychologist, the family’s pediatrician prescribed the antidepressant Zoloft. From January through March leading up to the incident, the dosages were increased. During this time, his mother said she observed her son’s behavior change—becoming increasingly irritable and hostile and saying bizarre things.[14]
  1. February 28, 2018 – Walsall, United Kingdom: Gregory Irvin, 26, was accused of murdering his 74-year-old grandmother on February 28, by stabbing her to death and slitting her throat. His girlfriend told a jury that he stopped taking medication for his anxiety five days before the murder. She said his anxiety medication made Irvin feel “a bit withdrawn” and that taking a break from the tablets made Irvin feel “less shy, more confident.” A medical examination revealed he had taken cocaine the day before. Irvin told police he took cocaine three or four times a week “as a relief from problems he could not cope with.”[15]
  1. November 5, 2017 – Sutherland Springs, Texas:Devin Patrick Kelley, 26, opened fire during church services on the First Baptist Church in Sutherland Springs, killing 26 people and injuring 20 more, with victims ranging in age from 18 months to 77 years old. He was later found dead in a vehicle after he was shot and chased by two men who heard the gunfire at the church. The autopsy released by the Travis County Medical Examiner’s Office reported that Kelley died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound. The autopsy also reported that toxicology tests detected marijuana and anti-anxiety drugs in his system.[16]
  1. October 1, 2017 – Las Vegas, Nevada: Stephen Craig Paddock, 64, opened fire on thousands of concertgoers on the Las Vegas Strip, from a room on the 32nd floor of the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino. He killed 58 and wounded 546 before taking his own life. According to the autopsy report, Paddock had an anti-anxiety drug in his system at the time of the shooting.[17]
  1. March 6, 2017 Franklin County, North Carolina: Oliver Funes Machada (18), was accused of decapitating his mother after stabbing her eight times, leaving the knife in her mouth, because he “felt like it.” His 4-year-old sister and 2-year-old brother were in the home at the time. The first deputy on the scene saw the suspect leave the house “carrying a knife in one hand and a severed human head in the other.” He was on four prescription drugs that “could be used to treat psychosis and schizophrenia.”[18]
  1. January 28, 2017 – Quebec City, Canada: Alexandre Bissonnette, age 27, walked in to a Quebec City mosque and opened fire into a crowd of men, women and children during evening prayers, killing six Muslim men and wounding 18. His mother told police that his doctor had recently given him a new prescription for the antidepressant paroxetine (Paxil) and that he was very “anxious and unstable” in the week before the shooting. When he pleaded guilty in 2018, he did not explain why he targeted the mosque but said he had “suicidal thoughts” and an “obsession” with death and said he was “not a terrorist, nor an Islamophobe.”[19]
  1. November 30, 2016 – Northern Territory, Australia: Pande Valeski, 37, stabbed a backpacker 20 times with a pair of scissors while the victim and his wife were at a rest stop 100k away from Alice Springs. Veleski had stopped taking his antipsychotic medication in the days leading up to the killing, and left his home in Melbourne to start driving to the Northern Territory where he intended to engage in a “civil war.”[20]
  1. October 2, 2016 – Sydney, Australia: Daniel Chapman, 22, stabbed his father in the back with a 14 centimeter blade knife, killing him. Mr. Chapman died from a loss of blood on the way to hospital. Daniel had been on the antidepressant Prozac, but had stopped taking it around two weeks before the incident.[21]
  1. September 23, 2016 – Burlington, Washington: 20-year-old Arcan Cetin opened fire in a Macy’s department store at the Cascade Mall, killing 5 people.  Cetin had seen at least four mental-health treatment providers in his life and was involuntarily committed to a psychiatric hospital in November 2015 after a suicide attempt. He was on three different psychiatric drugs—the antidepressant Prozac and ADHD drugs Concerta and guanfacine—as of 2015.  Additionally, records obtained by investigators from an NBC affiliate in Washington found that he had been diagnosed with autism, depression and ADHD, and had been receiving drugs “like Prozac” in the months before the shooting.[22]
  1. July 22, 2016 – Munich, Germany: 18-year-old Ali David Sonboly shot and killed 9 people, injured 27 others, then killed himself. According to CNN, he had a history of psychiatric care at a hospital for two months in 2015 and was suffering from depression and anxiety. The Guardian reported that after leaving the hospital, Sonboly “continued to receive outpatient treatment for social anxiety disorder and depression for which he was receiving medication.”[23]
  1. July 17, 2016 – Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Former Marine Gavin Long, age 29, went on a shooting rampage, killing three law officers and wounding three others before being shot dead by a SWAT team officer.  He told friends he had post-traumatic stress disorder.  CNN reported that Long had filled a prescription for Ativan, an anti-anxiety drug, as recently as June, and also had prescriptions for Valium (also an anti-anxiety drug) and the sleep aid Lunesta.[24]
  1. May 30, 2016 – Liverpool, United Kingdom: Sami Salem, 30, suffocated his wife and drowned their two kids. His brother, Nabeel Salem, told the jury that Sami Salem had been “acting paranoid” for weeks and he had taken him to see a mental health crisis team in the Royal Liverpool Hospital only 10 days before the killings. Nabeel said his brother was prescribed the anti-anxiety drug, diazepam, and discharged, with the promise of home visits and a referral to his doctor.[25]
  1. March 17, 2016 Benbrook, Texas: Sofya Tsygankova, 31, smothered her 5-year-old and 20-month-old daughters with pillows inside the family’s home and then tried to kill herself.[26] An empty prescription bottle for the antipsychotic drug Quetiapine, filled March 16, 2016, for Tsygankova, was found on the kitchen counter. At John Peter Smith Hospital on the day of the incident, Tsygankova spoke with police and said she thought she committed suicide and that she remembered taking a lot of pills, according to the warrant.[27]
  1. June 17, 2015 Lexington, South Carolina: Dylann Storm Roof (21) confessed to killing nine people at a historic black church, Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church, in Charleston because he hoped to start a race war. “I chose Charleston because it is the most historic city in my state, and at one time had the highest ratio of blacks to whites in the country,” he wrote. Roof walked into a Bible study class, stayed until it was just about over and then began shooting the victims. John Mullins, who went to school with Roof, said: “He used drugs heavily a lot” and said he was a pill-popper, “Like Xanax, and stuff like that.” On February 28, 2015, Roof was arrested for drug possession at a mall in Columbia. The Wall Street Journal reported that a police incident document said Roof was found to have strips of Suboxone. He did not have a prescription for the drug, which is commonly sold illegally on the street.[28] He was sentenced to death.[29]
  1. March 24, 2015 – Southern France: According to medical records, Andreas Lubitz, the pilot who deliberately crashed a Germanwings plane in a remote, mountainous area of Southern France killing all 150 people on board, was on medications for depression, anxiety and panic attacks, including lorazepam and an antidepressant. Lubitz had increased the dosage of antidepressants prescribed to him to twice the amount and also reportedly blamed the drug for loss of sleep and panic attacks. He also spent a year and a half in “psychiatric treatment” six years prior to the crash.[30]
  1. December 15, 2014 – Montgomery County, Pennsylvania: Iraq War veteran Bradley Stone, 35, killed his ex-wife plus her mother, grandmother and sister, and the sister’s husband and 14-year-old daughter and then committed suicide. According to the Medical Examiner, he had both the antidepressant trazodone and the antipsychotic risperidone in his system at the time of his death. Just one week prior to the murders, he had seen his Veterans Affairs psychiatrist, whose evaluation stated Stone had no suicidal or homicidal ideation.[31]
  1. May 23, 2014 – Santa Barbara, California: 22-year old Elliot Rodger stabbed three roommates to death at his apartment then drove to a sorority house where he shot three women, killing two of them. Driving again, he exchanged fire with deputies, hit a bicyclist, fired on other people in multiple locations and then killed himself having killed 6 and wounded 13 others.  In his own 137-page document outlining his plans, he stated: “To end my life, I will quickly swallow all of the Xanax and Vicodin pills I have left…”  He had also been seeing mental health professional for years.[32]
  1. April 2, 2014 – Fort Hood, Texas: Specialist Ivan Lopez had been prescribed Ambien, antidepressants and other medications to treat anxiety and depression when opened fire at Fort Hood military base, killing three people, wounding 16 others and then taking his own life. He had also been examined by a psychiatrist within the month prior and was being evaluated for PTSD.[33]
  1. September 16, 2013 – Washington, DC: Aaron Alexis, a Navy contractor, opened fire inside a building at the Washington Navy Yard, killing 12 and wounding eight others before he was killed by police. Alexis had received prescriptions from two Veterans Administration hospitals in August 2013 for the antidepressant Trazodone.[34]
  1. September 12, 2013 – West Palm Beach, Florida: According to toxicology results, Pamela Brooks had a prescribed dosage of the antidepressant Prozac in her system when she killed her 10-year-old daughter by stabbing her more than 20 times and committed suicide by stabbing herself more than 150 times with a kitchen knife.[35]
  1. March 13, 2013 Harlem, New York: Cynthia (Cindy) Wachenheim, 44, strapped her 10-month-old son to her chest in a baby carrier and leapt to her death from the eighth-floor window of her apartment. The baby miraculously survived with little more than scratches, police sources said. Just a few months earlier, in 2012, Cindy began seeing a psychiatrist, who prescribed Zoloft, an antidepressant. A police source also said Wachenheim was taking antidepressants and that pills were found in the apartment.[36]
  1. February 2, 2013 Chalk Mountain, Texas: Eddie Ray Routh, 28, shot and killed Chris Kyle, the former Navy SEAL who was the subject of the movie, American Sniper, and Kyle’s friend, Chad Littlefield, at a firing range. In February 2015, the former U.S. Marine was found guilty and sentenced to life in prison without parole for the killings. In late July 2011, a little more than a year after he had received an honorable discharge from the military, Routh, then aged 24, had been diagnosed with PTSD at the Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center and prescribed risperidone, an antipsychotic and generic of Risperdal, as well as the antidepressant, Zoloft, which is not recommended for anyone aged younger than 25 because of the risk that it may cause suicide. Routh’s father would later report that the cocktail of pharmaceuticals “made Eddie worse,” adding, “I ain’t no doctor. I ain’t no rocket scientist or nothing, but I could tell a difference in him.”[37] He had various hospitalizations over the next few years, and was said to be “paranoid and impulsively violent” and was prescribed a cocktail of psychotropic drugs that included two powerful antipsychotics, Haldol and Seroquel and the antidepressant Paxil.[38] He was also mixing prescription drugs known to cause aggressive and psychotic behavior with alcohol and marijuana.
  1. September 8, 2012 – Jackson County, Michigan: Michael Hamilton shot to death Robert Marcyan, attempted to kill Robert’s twin brother, Richard, and stole two cars to try to flee police. Robert was a handyman who had gone to the Hamilton house with his brother to fix some deck issues.  Just months before the shooting, Michael’s daily dosage of Adderall had more than doubled.[39]
  1. July 20, 2012 – Aurora, Colorado: 24-year-old James Holmes entered a movie theater where about 420 people were watching a midnight showing of “The Dark Knight Rises” and opened fire, killing 12 people and wounding 70. Officers found Holmes by his car behind the theater and arrested him.  During court testimonies, his psychiatrist, Lynne Fenton, said that she had prescribed Holmes the antidepressant sertraline and antianxiety drug clonazepam.  In a recorded interview with Holmes, he was asked if the shootings would not have taken place if he hadn’t taken the prescribed drugs.  Holmes answer was, “I’d say it was a possibility.”[40]
  1. March 8, 2012 – Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: 30-year-old John Shick, former patient of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) and former student at nearby Duquesne University, shot and killed one and injured six inside UPMC’s Western Psychiatrist Institute. He was shot and killed by police responding to the scene. Nine antidepressants were identified among the drugs police found in Shick’s apartment.[41]
  1. January 16, 2012 – El Cajon, California: An unidentified 10-year-old boy killed his best friend, 12-year-old Ryan Carter, by stabbing him to death with a kitchen knife.  The boy’s mother said that about a month before the attack, he was prescribed the antidepressant   At this point, his personality changed and he became “much more aggressive.”[42]
  1. January 8, 2012 – Fort Carson, Colorado: Vincinte Jackson, 40, stabbed Spc. Brandy Fonteneaux 74 times before choking her to death.  Jackson doesn’t know why he did it.  Capt. Jeremy Horn, one of Jackson’s defense lawyers,said that a combination of heavy drinking and a prescription antidepressant, Celexa, left Jackson unable to control his own actions.[43]
  1. October 12, 2011 – Seal Beach, California: Scott DeKraai, a harbor tugboat worker, entered the hair salon where his ex-wife worked, killing her and seven others and injuring one. At DeKraai’s initial hearing, his attorney indicated to the judge that DeKraai was prescribed the antidepressant Trazodone and the “mood stabilizer” Topamax.[44]
  1. December 14, 2010 Panama City, Florida: Clay Allen Duke, 56, killed himself after firing several shots at Bay District School Board members during a public meeting. A toxicology report revealed that at the time of Duke’s death, he had citalopram, an antidepressant, in his system, among other drugs.[45]
  1. October 17, 2010 – Afghanistan: Indiana soldier David Lawrence was taking the two antidepressants – Trazodone and Zoloft – when he killed a top Taliban commander by shooting him in the face in a prison cell. During questioning, David said he imagined all the people he knew being blown up and blacked out before the shooting.[46]
  1. October 26, 2009 – Newport, Maine: Perley Goodrich Jr. beat his mother and then shot his father dead shortly after being injected with Trazodone in a psychiatric hospital.  Goodrich had complained that he didn’t want to take the medication because it made him feel “violent.”[47]
  1. September 20, 2009 Winnipeg, Canada: An unnamed 15-year-old high school student with no prior history of violence, while chatting in his home with two friends, abruptly stabbed one of them, 15-year-old Seth Ottenbreit, to death with a single wound to the chest. The unnamed teenager was on Prozac at the time. The boy’s primary care physician and his parents alerted the prescribing psychiatric clinic to his deteriorating condition, which included agitation, anger and mood swings. But the clinic continued the Prozac and then doubled it. Seventeen days later, the teen knifed his friend to death.[48]
  1. August 21, 2009 Pasadena, Texas: Sergio Robles, 24, was charged with capital murder and aggravated assault for shooting to death Pasadena police officer Jesse Hamilton, 29, who was responding to a domestic disturbance call. Another officer later shot Robles, seriously injuring him. Robles’ mother, Olga Garcia, said her son was “on his medication.” He had a history of mental illness. His attorney said Robles had recently been diagnosed as schizophrenic and was prescribed medication. Robles had been released from Harris County jail less than 24 hours prior to the incident. He was sentenced to 40 years in prison.[49]
  1. August 15, 2009 Bray, Ireland: Shane Clancy, 22, attacked his ex-girlfriend and her new boyfriend with a knife. The new boyfriend died from a knife-wound to the heart. His brother was also stabbed nine times when he came to his aid. The young woman was stabbed in the back but managed to escape. The following afternoon, Clancy’s body was found. He had stabbed himself 19 times.[50] Clancy had been prescribed the SSRI antidepressant Citalopram by his doctor (a general practitioner) over the grief of the breakup with his girlfriend. He went on the deadly spree just 17 days after being prescribed the drug.[51]
  1. May 3, 2009 – Lakeland, Florida: Toxicology test results showed that 34-year-old Troy Bellar was on Tegretol, a drug prescribed for “bi-polar disorder,” when he shot and killed his wife and two of his three children in their home before killing himself.[52]
  1. April 26, 2009 – Granberry Crossing, Alabama: 53-year-old Fred B. Davis shot and killed a police officer and wounded a sheriff’s deputy who had responded to a call that Davis had threatened a neighbor with a gun. Prescription drug bottles found at the scene showed that Davis was prescribed the antipsychotic drug Geodon.[53]
  1. April 17, 2009 – Middletown, Maryland: Christopher Wood shot and killed his wife, three small children and himself inside their home. Toxicology test results verified that Wood had been taking the antidepressants Bupropion (Wellbutrin), Amitriptyline (Elavil) & Nortriptyline (Pamelor) and the anti-anxiety drugs Zolipdem (Ambien) & Alprazolam (Xanax).[54]
  1. March 29, 2009 – Carthage, North Carolina: Robert Kenneth Stewart killed eight people and wounded three others during a shooting rampage at a Carthage nursing home.  He was under the influence of the antidepressant Lexapro and the sedatives Ambien and Xanax. Tests run on Stewart’s blood following the shooting showed he had 12 times the therapeutic dose of Ambien in his system. Two days before the shooting he attempted to see a doctor. The doctor wasn’t there, but a nurse prescribed Lexapro and Xanax. The day before the shooting, Stewart became agitated because of the antidepressants he was taking. Stewart’s attorney said Stewart’s problems with the antidepressants prompted him to overdose on Ambien. His attorney also said, “Robert Stewart does not remember what happened on March 29, 2009, and he has never been able to tell anyone about it.”[55]
  1. January 11, 2009 – Concord, California: Jason Montes, 33, shot and killed his wife and then himself at home. Montes had earlier begun taking the antidepressant Prozac for depression related to his impending divorce and a recent bankruptcy.[56]
  1. August 14, 2008 – Little Rock, Arkansas: Less than 48 hours after Timothy Johnson shot and killed Arkansas Democratic Party Chairman Bill Gwatney, the Little Rock Police declared they were investigating shooter’s use of the antidepressant Effexor, which was found in Johnson’s house.  A Little Rock city police report later stated that Johnson “was on an antidepressant and that the drug may have played a part in his ‘irrational and violent behavior.’”[57]
  1. December 5, 2007 – Omaha, Nebraska: 19-year-old Robert Hawkins killed eight people and wounded five before committing suicide in an Omaha mall. Autopsy results confirmed he was under the influence of the “anti-anxiety” drug Valium.[58]
  1. December 31, 2006 – Fallujah, Iraq: Marine Lance Cpl. Delano Holmes killed Iraqi soldier Mutather Jasem Muhammed Hassin by stabbing him 40 times with a combat knife, with some of the wounds piercing his spine. Holmes had been prescribed Trazodone (an antidepressant), Ambien and Valium (both anti-anxiety drugs). [59]
  1. January 20, 2006 – Charlotte, North Carolina: David Crespi, 45, a bank auditor, was being treated with a cocktail of drugs for depression when he stabbed and killed his five-year-old twin girls, Sam and Tess. Seven days before the killings David was prescribed a new drug for his depression, Prozac, as well as taking Lunesta and Ambien. After pleading guilty to murder in a deal struck to avoid execution, he began serving two life sentences.[60]
  1. July 8, 2003 – North Meridian, Florida: Doug Williams killed five and wounded nine of his fellow Lockheed Martin employees before killing himself. Williams was reportedly taking two antidepressants, Zoloft and Celexa, for depression after a failed marriage.[61]
  1. January 3, 2003 Ellicott City, Maryland: Ryan T. Furlough, 18, killed a Centennial High School classmate by spiking his soda with cyanide. He was being treated with Effexor.[62] In July 2004, he was sentenced to life in prison for the poisoning of his best friend, with a potential for parole.[63]
  1. June 20, 2001 Houston, Texas: Mother and housewife Andrea Yates, 37, filled the bathtub and drowned her five children, ages six months to seven years. For many years, Mrs. Yates had struggled through hospitalizations, prescribed psychiatric drugs and suicide attempts.[64] At the time of the tragedy, she was taking Effexor and Remeron, both antidepressants, and had been previously taking Wellbutrin, another antidepressant, as well as Haldol.[65] Science consultant Edward G. Ezrailson, Ph.D., reported that the cocktail of drugs prescribed to Mrs. Yates caused involuntary intoxication. The “overdose” of one antidepressant and “sudden high doses” of another, “worsened her behavior,” he said. This “led to murder.”[66]
  1. December 26, 2000 – Wakefield, Massachusetts: 42-year-old computer technician Michael McDermott had been taking three antidepressants, Paxil, Prozac and Desyrel, when he hunted down employees with a shotgun and a rifle in the accounting and human resources offices where he worked, killing seven.[67]
  1. April 28, 2000 – Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Richard Baumhammers, 34, shot six people, killing five and paralyzing the sixth. He considered Hitler and the Oklahoma City Bomber to be heroes. Baumhammers had frequented white supremacist websites, tried to form a Free Market political party and created a website opposing non-white, non-European immigration. He then chose his victims accordingly. The killing spree was described as a “20-mile trail of blood across two counties” that was carried out in a “chilling,” “unhurried, methodical” manner.[68] Prior to the killing spree, he had been under treatment by 12 different psychologists and psychiatrists and had taken up to 17 different psychiatric drugs.[69]
  1. January 30, 1999 Grand Forks, North Dakota: Ryan Ehlis, 26, of Grand Forks, had been taking Adderall when he shot his 5-day-old daughter. Psychiatrists testified in court and the judge agreed that Ehlis lacked the capacity to understand what he was doing because of the drug. He was acquitted of the killing. The drug’s label warns that it can cause “psychotic episodes at recommended doses.”[70]
  1. May 1, 1998 – Buffalo, New York: 37-year-old Juan Roman, an Erie County sheriff’s deputy, pursued his estranged wife into their children’s elementary school and shot her dead, and a school aide was hit in the elbow. Roman was taking antidepressants and seeing a psychiatrist.[71]
  1. February 13, 1998 Gillette, Wyoming: In June 2001, a Wyoming jury awarded $8 million to the relatives of Donald Schell, 60, who went on a shooting rampage after taking an antidepressant. According to the study, “Antidepressants and Violence: Problems at the Interface of Medicine and Law,” Schell (“DS” in the study) had no history of suicidality, aggressive behavior or other serious disturbance. Earlier prescribed fluoxetine (generic of Prozac), he had experienced agitation, restlessness and hallucinations which ended after fluoxetine was discontinued. In 1998, a different doctor, unaware of this adverse reaction, prescribed paroxetine (generic of Paxil) for anxiety. Two days later, Schell put three bullets each through the heads of his wife, his daughter who was visiting, and his nine-month-old granddaughter before killing himself. The jury determined that paroxetine “can cause some people to become homicidal and/or suicidal” and that the drug was 80 percent responsible for the ensuing acts.[72]
  1. May 25, 1992 – St. Petersburg, Florida:  30-year-old David Doyle Rittenhouse shot and killed a man that went on a date with his wife. Rittenhouse said he was taking a drug somewhat similar to the controversial drug Prozac, and that the drug impeded his perception abilities and he thought the man had raped his wife, though he said “He knows it didn’t happen that way – but he said that is what was in his mind.’’[73]


[1] Elizabeth Wolfe and Dakin And one, “What we know about the suspect in the Colorado Springs LGBTQ nightclub shooting,” CNN, 22 Nov. 2022, https://www.cnn.com/2022/11/21/us/anderson-lee-aldrich-colorado-springs-shooting-suspect/index.html; Aidan Hulting, “Accused Club Q shooter one step closer to trial,” KOAA (NBC), 23 Feb. 2023, https://www.koaa.com/news/covering-colorado/accused-club-q-shooter-one-step-closer-to-trial

[2] “San Jose mass shooting gunman: Who is Sam Cassidy?” KRON4, 26 May 2021, https://www.kron4.com/san-jose-vta-rail-yard-shooting/suspect-identified-in-san-jose-mass-shooting-as-vta-employee/.

[3] “San Jose shooter’s ex-wife says he told her he wanted to kill people at work,” California News Times, 27 May 2021, https://californianewstimes.com/san-jose-shooters-ex-wife-says-he-told-her-he-wanted-to-kill-people-at-work/362908/.

4] Lee Brown, “Farhan and Tanvir Towhid, who slaughtered family, left behind bizarre suicide note with ‘The Office’ rant,” New York Post, 6 Apr. 2021, https://nypost.com/2021/04/06/texas-brothers-who-killed-family-in-murder-suicide-lied-for-guns/.

[5] Tony Wall, “The day the Devil came to Te Teko: the killing of Pania Melrose,” StuffNZ, 15 Nov. 2020, https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/crime/123347114/the-day-the-devil-came-to-te-teko-the-killing-of-pania-melrose.

[6] “Doctors wanted Deirdre Morley to be admitted to psychiatric hospital two months before tragedy but she refused,” Head Topics Ireland, 22 May 2021, https://headtopics.com/ie/doctors-wanted-deirdre-morley-to-be-admitted-to-psychiatric-hospital-two-months-before-tragedy-but-s-20220314; Connor Gallagher, “Deirdre Morley case: Inquiry into treatment ‘imperative’, says mental health service,” The Irish Times, 21 May 2021, https://www.irishtimes.com/news/crime-and-law/deirdre-morley-case-inquiry-into-treatment-imperative-says-mental-health-service-1.4571538.

[7] Dan Whitcomb, “Dayton gunman had cocaine, Xanax, alcohol in his system during attack,” Reuters, 15 Aug. 2019, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-shooting-ohio/dayton-gunman-had-cocaine-xanax-alcohol-in-his-system-during-attack-idUSKCN1V600V.

[8] Emma Kennedy, “Sheriff: Dakota Theriot case is ‘extremely horrific example’ of failed mental health system,” The Advocate, 3 Feb. 2019, https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/news/crime_police/article_bef1127c-25c4-11e9-a111-8b4106437e1b.html.

[9] Nia Hamm, Karla Rendon-Alvarez and Chris Emma, “PD: Florida Man Stabbed His Mother and Her Husband 18 Times in Bridgewater, Mass,” NECN.com, 17 Dec. 2018, https://www.necn.com/news/new-england/Bridgewater-Massachusetts-Two-Hospitalized-Incident-Investigation-502913721.html.

[10] “Man charged in killing of Arizona trooper faces 2019 trial,” Tuscon.com, 16 Oct. 2018, https://tucson.com/news/state-and-regional/man-charged-in-killing-of-arizona-trooper-faces-trial/article_44657eac-d14c-11e8-b006-1f910d308558.html.

[11] Emma Younger, “Child tried to stop fatal knife attack on mother by ‘delusional’ father, court told,” ABC News (Australia), 29 Apr. 2019, https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-04-29/daniel-eckersley-faces-plea-hearing-over-death-of-wife/11055062.

[12] Janet Oravets, “Judge enters not guilty plea, sets trial date for Westminster road rage suspect,” 9News.com, 7 Jan. 2019, https://www.9news.com/article/news/crime/judge-enters-not-guilty-plea-sets-trial-date-for-westminster-road-rage-suspect/73-fc8c9737-e6a7-4fd4-b80e-9ee7e8c458bc.

[13] James Carmody, “Margaret River murder-suicide: Peter Miles’s heartache blamed for unspeakable violence,” ABC News (Australia), 13 May 2018, https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-05-14/margaret-river-murder-suicide-peter-miles-pain-behind-killings/9756918; Trevor Paddenburg, “Margaret River massacre: Depression drug clue to grandfather’s murder of family,” PerthNow, 19 May 2018, https://www.perthnow.com.au/news/south-west/margaret-river-massacre-depression-drug-clue-to-grandfathers-murder-of-family-ng-b88840726z.

[14] Stephanie Warsmith, “Wadsworth teen sentenced to life in prison for strangulation death of elderly neighbor,” Akron Beacon Journal, 3 Jan. 2019, https://www.ohio.com/news/20190103/wadsworth-teen-sentenced-to-life-in-prison-for-strangulation-death-of-elderly-neighbor.

[15] Marion Brennan, “Anne James murder trial: Accused stopped taking medication just days before gran’s death,” Express & Star, 15 Oct. 2018, https://www.expressandstar.com/news/crime/2018/10/15/anne-james-murder-trial-accused-stopped-taking-medication-just-days-before-grans-death/.

[16] “Autopsy confirms Texas church gunman died by suicide,” Statesman, 29 June 2018, https://www.statesman.com/news/autopsy-confirms-texas-church-gunman-died-suicide/6l7PhZAJ3ktpRRDBJRyp4O/.

[17] Jeff German and Anita Hassan, “Las Vegas shooter’s autopsy gives no clues,” Las Vegas Review Journal, 9 Feb. 2018, https://www.reviewjournal.com/news/investigations/las-vegas-shooters-autopsy-gives-no-clues/; Paul Harasim, “Las Vegas Strip shooter prescribed anti-anxiety drug in June,” Las Vegas Review Journal, 3 Oct. 2017, https://www.reviewjournal.com/local/the-strip/las-vegas-strip-shooterprescribed-anti-anxiety-drug-in-june/; Scott Glover and Kyung Lah, “Exclusive: Vegas killer described his unusual habits in 2013 testimony,” CNN, 9 Oct. 2017, http://www.cnn.com/2017/10/09/us/las-vegas-stephen-paddock-deposition/index.html.

[18] “North Carolina man ‘felt like’ killing mother in decapitation case, court records say,” Associated Press, 8 Mar. 2017, http://www.nola.com/crime/index.ssf/2017/03/decapitation_case_suspect_says.html; Mark Price, “NC teen told 911 dispatcher he beheaded his mother ‘because I felt like it,’” The Charlotte Observer, 8 Mar. 2017, http://www.charlotteobserver.com/news/local/article137129903.html.

[19] Raquel Fletcher, “Quebec City mosque shooter considered mall shooting 2 months earlier,” Global News, 23 Apr 2018, https://globalnews.ca/news/4162275/quebec-city-mosque-shooter-considered-mall-shooting/; “Canadian student pleads guilty to killing six men in mosque shooting,” The Guardian, 28 Mar 2018, https://theguardian.com/world/2018/mar/28/alexandre-bissonnette-canada-mosque-shooting-guilty-plea; Chandrika Narayan, “Quebec mosque suspect known to people who monitor far-right groups,” CNN, 8 Feb 2017, https://www.cnn.com/2017/01/31/americas/quebec-mosque-shooting-suspect/index.html; Jonathan Montpetit, “Quebec City shooter supported Trump’s immigration policies, newly public court documents show,” CBC News, 29 Mar 2018, http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/mosque-shooting-bissonette-1.4597998.

[20] “Victorian man Pande Veleski jailed for 20 years for killing French backpacker,” ABC News (Australia), 2 Nov. 2018, https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-11-02/pande-veleski-jailed-over-french-backpacker-nt-killing/10460174; Kylie Stevens, “Schizophrenic killer ‘thought he was saving the world’ when he stabbed a French backpacker to death in front of his wife at a remote Outback truck stop,” Daily Mail, 2 Nov. 2018, https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6345141/Outback-killer-thought-saving-world-stabbed-French-backpacker-death.html.

[21] Brittany Chain and Laura Hedges, “‘Autistic’ gamer, 22, who stabbed his father to death after being told to stop playing on his computer and move out is jailed for three years,” Daily Mail, 16 Nov. 2018, https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6396465/Autistic-gamer-22-stabbed-father-death.html.

[22] Andrew Blankstein and Corky Siemaszko, “Arcan Cetin, Accused Cascade Mall Shooter, Faces Five Counts of Murder,” NBC News, 27 Sep 2016, http://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/arcan-cetin-accused-cascade-mall-shooter-charged-five-counts-murder-n654586; “Hospital tried to commit suspected Cascade Mall shooter,” King 5, 27 Sep 2016, http://www.king5.com/news/crime/cascade-mall-shooting-suspect-says-he-did-it-say-court-records/326243270; Jessie Stensland, “Treatment, supervision didn’t stop alleged shooter with a troubled past,” Whidbey News-Times, 1 Oct 2016, http://www.whidbeynewstimes.com/news/395470251.html.

[23] Tim Hume, “Munich gunman planned attack for a year, official say,” CNN July 24, 2016, http://www.cnn.com/2016/07/24/europe/germanymunichshooting/; Jamie Grierson, Emma Graham-Harrison and Kate Connolly, and Janek Schmidt, “Munich gunman lured victims on Facebook with ‘free McDonald’s food,’“ 23 Jul 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jul/23/munich-shooting-teenage-gunman-researched-killing-sprees-no-isis-links; Kate Lyons, Janek Schmidt and agencies, “Afghan, 16, arrested in connection with Munich Shootings,” The Guardian, July  24, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jul/24/munichgunmanalisonbolyplannedattackformorethanayearsayinvestigators

[24] Steve Visser, “Baton Rouge shooting: 3 officers dead; shooter was Missouri man, sources say,” CNN, 18 Jul 2016, http://www.cnn.com/2016/07/17/us/batonroutepoliceshooting/; Joshua Berlinger and Jason Hanna, “Gavin Long said he suffered from PTSD, source tells CNN,” CNN, 20 Jul 2016, http://www.cnn.com/2016/07/20/health/gavinlongptsdbatonrouge/.

[25] Rachel Bishop, “‘Schizophrenic’ dad admits suffocating wife and drowning their two children in bath but denies murder ‘on grounds of diminished responsibility,’” Mirror, 16 Apr. 2018, https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/schizophrenic-dad-admits-suffocating-wife-12373701; Neil Docking, “Dad sobs as he admits suffocating wife and drowning their two children in Toxteth,” Liverpool Echo, 29 June 2017, https://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/news/liverpool-news/dad-sobs-admits-suffocating-wife-13256851.

[26] Deanna Boyd, “Wife of Cliburn winner found not guilty by reason of insanity in daughters’ deaths,” Fort Worth Star-Telegram, 16 July 2018, https://www.star-telegram.com/news/local/crime/article214755220.html

[27] Frank Heinz, “Arrest Warrant Reveals Grisly Details Into Night Pianist’s Children Killed,” NBC DFW, 22 Mar. 2016, https://www.nbcdfw.com/news/local/arrest-warrants-reveal-grisly-details-into-night-pianists-children-killed/200698/.

[28] “Everything Known About Charleston Church Shooting Suspect Dylann Roof,” Daily Beast, 20 Jun. 2015, https://www.thedailybeast.com/everything-known-about-charleston-church-shooting-suspect-dylann-roof; “Dylann Roof Confesses” WND, 19 Jun. 2015, http://www.wnd.com/2015/06/dylann-roof-confesses-everybody-so-nice-at-church/.

[29] Jay Croft and Tristan Smith, “Dylann Roof pleads guilty to state charges in church massacre,” CNN, 10 Apr. 2017, http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/10/us/dylann-roof-guilty-plea-state-trial/index.html.

[30] Elizabeth Whitman, “What Drugs Was Andreas Lubitz On? Lorazepam, Antidepressants Could Have Affected Germanwings Pilot,” International Business Times, 2 Apr 2015, http://www.ibtimes.com/whatdrugswasandreaslubitzlorazepamantidepressantscouldhaveaffected1867744; “Germanwings co-pilot had serious depressive episode: Bild newspaper,” Reuters, 27 Mar 2015, http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/03/27/usfrancecrashcopilotidUSKBN0MN0I620150327; Shena Shankar, “Germanwings Plane Co-Pilot Andreas Lubitz Told Doctor He Could Not ‘See Clearly’ And Had Insomnia,” International Business Times, 7 Mar 2016, http://www.ibtimes.com/germanwingsplanecopilotandreaslubitztolddoctorhecouldnotseeclearlyhad2331365.

[31] Ralph Ellis, Susan Candiotti and Ashely Fantz, “Police in Pa. search for man suspected of killing ex-wife, 5 former in-laws,” CNN, 15 Dec 2014, www.cnn.com/2014/12/15/us/pennsylvania-shootings/; Jacqueline Klimas, “Bradley Stone cleared by Veterans Affairs doctor one week before murders, suicide,” Washington Times, 17 Dec 2014, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/dec/17/bradleystoneclearedveteransaffairsdoctorone/; Dan Stamm and Vince Lattanzio, “Montgomery County Spree Killer Bradley Stone Dies of Drug Overdose: ME,” NBC 10 Philadelphia, 24 Dec 2014, http://www.nbcphiladelphia.com/news/local/BradleyStoneDeathOverdoseReport286716351.html.

[32] Oren Dorell and William M. Welch, “Police identify Calif. Shooting suspect as Elliot Rodger,” USA Today, 26 May 2014, www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/05/24/shooting-california-santa-barbara/9532405/; Richard Winton, Rosanna Xia, Rong-Gong Lin II, “Isla Vista shooting: Read Elliot Rodger’s graphic, elaborate attack plan,” LA Times, 25 May 2014, https://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-isla-vista-document-20140524-story.html.

[33] David Montgomery, Manny Fernandez and Ashley Southall, “Fort Hood Gunman Was Being Treated for Depression,” The New York Times, 3 Apr 2014; Ben Brumfield, Tom Watkins and Josh Rubin, “Fort Hood shooting spree: ‘Texans’ hearts are once again very heavy,’” CNN, 3 Apr 2014.

[34] Trip Gabriel, Joseph Goldstein and Michael S. Schmidt, “Suspect’s Past Fell Just Short of Raising Alarm,” The New York Times, 17 Sept 2013.

[35] Alexandra Seltzer, “Pamela Brooks not under influence of illicit drugs or alcohol when she killed daughter and herself,” The Palm Beach Post, 24 Oct 2013.

[36] Pam Belluck, “After Baby, an Unraveling,” The New York Times, 16 June 2014, https://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/17/health/maternal-mental-illness-can-arrive-months-after-baby.html; Rocco Parascandola, Joe Kemp and Vera Chinese, “Manhattan mother jumps eight stories to her death with her infant son strapped to her chest; baby survives with minor injuries,” New York Daily News, 16 Mar. 2013, https://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/mother-dies-infant-injured-8-story-fall-article-1.1287649.

[37] Rick Jervis, “‘American Sniper’ killer found guilty in murders,” USA Today, 24 Feb. 2015, https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2015/02/24/american-sniper-murder-trial-verdict/23896859; Nicholas Schmidle, “In the Crosshairs,” The New Yorker, 3 Jun. 2013, http://www.thenewyorker.com/magazine/2013/06/03/in-the-crosshairs.

[38] Mike Spies, “Inside the Tortured Mind of Eddie Ray Routh, the Man Who Killed American Sniper Chris Kyle,” Newsweek, 23 Nov. 2015, http://www.newsweek.com/2016/01/08/insidetorturedmindmanwhokilledamericansniperchriskyle397299.html.

[39] Danielle Salisbury, “Doctor prescribed Michael Hamilton Adderall, increased dosage; prosecution suggests prescription overuse,” MLive.com, 9 Oct 2013.

[40] Maria L. La Ganga, “What will Dr. Lynne Fenton say about her former patient James Holmes?,” LA Times, 4 Jun 2015, http://www.latimes.com/nation/lanadrlynnefentonjamesholmes20150603story.html; “Timeline of Events Leading to James Holmes’ Guilty Verdicts,” ABC News, 16 Jul 2015, abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory/theater-shooting-key-events-life-james-holmes-32506142.

[41] Margaret Harding and Bobby Kerlick, “UPMC probed in Western Psychiatric Institute shooting rampage,” Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, 29 Mar 2012.

[42] James Nye, “I’m the mother of a 10-year-old murderer: Adopted mom of boy who stabbed 12 year old to death reveals how she struggled with his behavior for years but insists he’s no monster,” Mail Online, 20 Oct 2013.

[43] “Colorado Soldier Guilty Of Unpremeditated Murder,” CBS Denver, 13 Dec 2012, http://denver.cbslocal.com/2012/12/13/colorado-soldier-guilty-of-unpremeditated-murder/; Jakob Rodgers, “Expert testifies that pills, alcohol led soldier to kill,” The Gazette, 12 Dec 2012, http://www.stripes.com/news/us/expert-testifies-that-pills-alcohol-led-soldier-to-kill-1.200465.

[44] “OC DA Expects Seal Beach Shooter to Use Insanity Defense,” LAist.com, 14 Oct 2011; “Ex-wife feared Seal Beach suspect as unbalance,” CBS News, 13 Oct 2011.

[45] S. Brady Calhoun, “Autopsy of school board shooter released Antidepressant found in Clay Duke’s system,” The Walton Sun, 13 Apr. 2011, https://web.archive.org/web/20110918071802/http://www.waltonsun.com/news/shooter-92697-newsherald-autopsy-board.html.

[46] Karen Hensel, “Soldier faces international scrutiny, death penalty,” www.wishtv.com, 22 Feb 2011.

[46] Scott Monroe, “Murder suspect pleads insanity,” The Morning Sentinel, August 10.

[48] “Judge Sentences Teenager In Prozac Murder Case — Release in 10 Months to Community Service,” HuffPost, 8 Nov. 2011, https://www.huffpost.com/entry/judge-sentences-teenager-_b_1077930; “Judge says Prozac turned teen into a killer,” The Hamilton Spectator, 16 Sept. 2011, https://www.thespec.com/news/canada/2011/09/16/judge-says-prozac-turned-teen-into-a-killer.html; James Turner, “Killer teen sues doctors over Prozac,” Winnipeg Sun, 12 Jan. 2013, https://winnipegsun.com/2013/01/12/killer-teen-sues-doctors-over-procac.

[49] Jim Molony, “Robles pleads guilty to killing Pasadena police officer,” Houston Chronicle, 12 May 2011, http://www.chron.com/neighborhood/pasadena/news/article/Robles-pleads-guilty-to-killing-Pasadena-police-9353778.php; Renee C. Lee, “Man accused of killing cop had sued over brutality,” Houston Chronicle, 24 Aug. 2009, http://www.chron.com/neighborhood/pasadena-news/article/Man-accused-of-killing-cop-had-sued-over-brutality-1747727.php; Richard Connelly, “Sergio Robles: Cop-Killer Gets 40 Years in Plea Deal,” Houston Press, 12 May 2011, http://www.houstonpress.com/news/sergioroblescopkillergets40yearsinpleadeal6734897; Jessica Willey, “Officer Responding to Call Fatally Shot,” ABC 13 News, 22 Aug. 2009, http://abc13.com/archive/6976048/; “Accused Cop Killer Now in Jail,” ABC 13 News, 16 Sept. 2009, http://abc13.com/archive/7018027.

[50] Dave Kenny, “The Real Shane was not a Killer,” Independent.ie, 3 June 2012, https://www.independent.ie/irish-news/the-real-shane-was-not-a-killer-26860449.html.

[51] Lucy Johnston, “Mother says antidepressant drugs turned her son into a ‘psychotic killer,’” Express, 30 July 2017, https://www.express.co.uk/life-style/health/834580/antidepressants-drug-murder-killing-rampage-Shane-Clancy.

[52] “Son escapes gunfire as Troy Ryan Bellar kills wife, two other sons, and then self in Florida,” The Associated Press, 4 May 2009; “Bellar, Troy Ryan Autopsy Findings,” Office of the District Medical Examiner, 10th Judicial Circuit of Florida, 5 May 2009.

[53] Debbie Ingram, “Friends, neighbors search for answers after officer’s death,” Dothan Eagle, 25 April 2009.

[54] Gina Gallucci-White, “Seven drugs found in Christopher Wood’s system at the time of murder-suicide,” Frederick News Post, 24 Jun 2009.

[55] “Defense: Stewart doesn’t remember nursing home shooting,” WRAL.com, 1 Aug 2011.

[56] Robert Salonga, “‘We didn’t see it coming’ says father of shooter in Concord murder-suicide,” The Mercury News, 13 Jan 2009.

[57] Warren Watkins, “Evidence suggests planned shooting,” The Daily Citizen, 14 Aug 2008.

[58] “Autopsy: Only Valium in system of Omaha mall gunman,” USA Today, 1 Jan 2008.

[59] Rick Rogers, “Lawyers: Marine was being treated,” Union Tribune San Diego, 1 Nov 2007.

[60] “Canadian man who killed son while taking anti-depressants lobbies for freedom of U.S. dad who killed twins,” National Post (Canada), 22 Oct. 2012, http://nationalpost.com/news/canadian-manwho-killed-son-while-taking-anti-depressants-lobbies-for-freedom-of-u-s-dad-who-killed-twins/wcm/3518cb12-f03b-47fa-b0e7-cb25eea13b82; Ed Jones, “How could I forgive a killer?” Charlotte Observer, 20 Jan. 2008, http://crespifamilyhope.blogspot.com/2010/07/misdiagnosedmental-illness-drove-david.html.

[61] Fredie Carmichael, “Anatomy of a nightmare: Tracing events of a tragic Tuesday,” The Meridian Star, 13 Jul 2003.

[62] Lisa Goldberg, “Trial due to start in teen’s poisoning,” The Baltimore Sun, 9 May 2004, http://articles.baltimoresun.com/2004-05-09/news/0405090134_1_ furlough-insanity-plea-cyanide.

[63] Ibid.; “Md. Teen Gets Life For Poisoning Friend,” Washington Post, 21 Jul. 2004, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A114-2004Jul20.html.

[64] Susan Campbell, “The Denial of Mental Illness,” The Hartford Courant, 25 Jan. 2004, https://www.courant.com/news/connecticut/hc-xpm-2004-01-25-0401250057-story.html

[65] David Walsh, “Texas mother drowns children: Andrea Yates and ‘family values,’” WSWS.org, 2 July 2001, https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2001/07/yate-j02.html

[66] Edward G. Ezrailson, Ph.D., Report on Review of Andrea Yates’ Medical Records, 29 Mar. 2002.

[67] Dave Wedge, Tom Farmer and Jose Martinez, “Source: Suspect was taking drugs for depression,” Boston Herald, 29 Dec 2000.

[68] “Cold killer’s 20-mile trail leaves 5 dead,” The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 29 Apr. 2000, http://old.post-gazette.com/regionstate/20000429shootings2.asp; “Richard Scott BAUMHAMMERS,” Murderpedia, http://murderpedia.org/male.B/b/baumhammers.htm.

[69] Mike Crissey, “Parents of Pa. Man sentenced to death in shooting spree say jury ignored mental illness,” San Diego Union Tribune, 1 Aug. 2001, http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/sdut-the-back-page-2001aug02-story.html.

[70] “Man sues drugmaker for $100,000,” Deseret News, 24 Sept. 2000, https://www.deseret.com/2000/9/24/19530492/man-sues-drugmaker-for-100-000.

[71] “Man accused in shooting was on anti-depressants,” The Associated Press, 4 May 1998.

[72] David Healy, Andrew Herxheimer, and David B. Menkes, “Antidepressants and Violence: Problems at the Interface of Medicine and Law,” PLoS Medicine, Sept. 2006, 3(9): e372, https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.0030372.

[73] Laura Griffin, “Shooting Reaps 17-Year Sentence,” St. Petersburg Times, 23 Jul 1993.