The DBSA was originally the National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association (since 2002, called DBSA), one of the major front groups established in 1986 that could lobby Congress for research funds for National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and psychiatry—research that ultimately could lead to more psychotropic drug sales. The “experts” that flocked to its scientific advisory board likely impressed the group’s members but few would realize the potential agenda behind this. Nor would they suspect that while the association may appear to be advocating for patients, its true advocacy would be towards drug “solutions”—drugs its advisory board conducted studies on for the pharmaceutical companies that paid them.
The group was formed shortly after psychiatrist Herbert Pardes left NIMH as its director and became an advisor to NDMDA. By 1999, at least 7 NIMH psychiatrists were on its advisory board, including Charles Nemeroff who was Chairman of the Board of Directors Executive Committee (and whose conflicts of interest with the pharmaceutical industry recently came under U.S. Senate Finance Committee investigation).
During the decade following the establishment of NDMDA (and similar groups), federal funds to the NIMH budget increased 233%—from $1.7 billion between 1978 and 1986, to more than $5.6 billion in the decade following.
The pharmaceutical industry admits that investing in “advocacy groups” is an efficient tool for driving long-term support of drug brands—even more effective than direct-to-consumer marketing. The advisory board of DBSA shows why.
The 2008 Advisory Board (and board prior to US Senate conflicts of interest investigations in 2008) included:
- Seven psychiatrists who would come under Senate Finance Committee investigation over their conflicts of interest with the pharmaceutical company, having failed to declare nearly $11.7 million between them to universities and agencies with whom they worked and who required such disclosure. These are Joseph Biederman, Frederick Goodwin, Martin Keller, Charles B. Nemeroff, A. John Rush, Alan F. Schatzberg and Karen Wagner.
- At least four members were on the DSM-IV Review Panels—exposed in 2006 for its members’ undisclosed ties to the pharmaceutical industry. At least four members sit on the DSM-V Review, including David Kupfer, its chair.
- At least a dozen are former NIMH officials or sat on NIMH Committees. Dr. Edward Scolnick also served as a member of the FDA Science Board from 2000 to 2002, while Dr. Robert Post is currently Chief of the Biological Psychiatry Branch of NIMH.
- At least 26 of the Board members have received research funds from NIMH.
- Three of the board members are former or current employees of pharmaceutical companies. One member, Dennis Charney, holds the patent of drug ketamine. On its website DBSA advertises for readers to participate in a clinical drug trial—ketamine (patented by one of its own advisory board members).
- Five (A. John Rush, Karen Wagner, Neal Ryan, Barbara Geller, and Trisha Suppres) helped developed the Texas Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP), children’s version of it called CMAP or components of it. TMAP is a psychiatric drug program invented by drug companies and psychiatrists for Texas to force doctors to prescribe the most expensive psychotropic drugs—now the subject of a major whistleblower and Texas Attorney General lawsuit.
- Four were authors of the controversial GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) study 329 that covered up adverse effects, including suicide, of Paxil on children: Neal Ryan, Barbara Geller, Martin Keller and Karen Wagner.
- David Dunner “ghostwrote” an article about Paxil on behalf of GSK concluding that the antidepressant was less likely to lead to suicidal thoughts than the older antidepressant imipramine or a placebo (sugar pill). Dunner never even looked at any of the data to make such a claim. He was also a key member of the infamous 1991 FDA Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee that investigated whether Prozac could cause violent and suicidal behavior and exonerated it. Eight out of the 10 panelists had drug company ties, including Dunner’s substantial ties to Eli Lilly, maker of Prozac.)
- At least 9 DBSA Advisory board members have stock or equity in or helped found pharmaceutical drug or device/development companies.
- More than 10 are affiliated with Cyberonics, a medical device company that patented VNS (Vegas Nerve Stimulation), a “Clock Work Orange” procedure (costing $15,000- $25,000) and involving implanting electrodes in the brain that send electrical pulses through the brain to “treat” depression.
- At least 8 have financial ties to Corcept Therapeutics, including Alan Schatzberg (APA president, 2009) who co-founded the company and is a stockholder along with DBSA’s Bruce McEwen, Charles Nemeroff, Ned Kalin, K. and Ranga Krishnan. David Kupfer, Pedro L. Delgado and Paul Keck are also affiliated with Corcept.
- At least 7 conducted a $26.8 MILLION NIMH-FUNDED clinical study on the so-called Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD). The study reviewed psychiatric drugs made by Abbott, GSK and Janssen and found “medication” an important component of treating “bipolar.” The website for STEP-BD refers readers to DBSA and NAMI. The members are: Mark S Bauer, Charles L. Bowden (with financial ties to Abbot, GSK, Janssen), Joseph Calabrese (Abbot, GSK, Janssen), Alan Gelenberg (GSK), Michael E. Thase (GSK, Janssen), Gary S Sachs (lead author of the study who sits on Advisory Board, Speakers Bureau and is consultant for or receives grants from Abbot, GSK, Janssen) and John M. Zajecka (Abbot, GSK).
- At least 6 were researchers and co-authors of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP)-funded study published in January 2004 that claimed that SSRI antidepressants did not increase the risk of suicide in children and adolescents (in contrast to evidence-based research that found a high risk.) The ACNP’s membership has heavy ties to the pharmaceutical industry and at least 9 DBSA advisory board members are also members of ACNP.
- About 6 helped develop the so-called “Mood Disorder Questionnaire” in 2000 to screen people for “bipolar” or “mood disorders,” thereby driving up the number of children and adults put on psychotropic drugs.
- Columbia University’s Dr. David Shaffer, who invented the TeenScreen questionnaire now being foisted off on teenagers to label them as depressed (to get them on antidepressants) is on the advisory board. He also advised against British drug regulators restricting the use of antidepressants on children and teens, claiming there was insufficient evidence they caused suicide (thankfully ignored.)
- Dr. Dennis S. Charney, Chief of the Mood and Anxiety Disorder Research Program and the Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch at NIMH from 2000-2004, holds a patent in the drug ketamine. While on its website DBSA claims that neither it or its advisors and consultants “endorse or recommend the use of any specific treatment or medication,” it advertises for readers to participate in a clinical drug trial—ketamine (patented by one of its own advisory board members!).
- Many members are on advisory boards of other pharmaceutical company funded groups or received awards or funding from them, including at least 6 affiliated with or having been awarded by NAMI; more than a dozen are recipients of NARSAD awards, research funds or are on its scientific advisory board, and at least 11 are on the advisory board of or have been awarded by the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention—all groups that rely substantially on drug company funding.
Government agencies such as NIMH, FDA and NIH should not have its officers or employee researchers sitting on the Boards or as advisors to groups such as DBSA.
DBSA: ADVISORY BOARD (Disclosure)
The following represents nearly 60 of the DBSA’s scientific advisory committee, with all but a few steeped in pharmaceutical company and government agency ties. They can use advocacy groups for their own agendas and to push a biological approach (drug model) to treating people’s problems.
Psychiatrist Jan A. Fawcett, MD helped found NDMDA and has been on its Scientific Advisory Council since, while also conducting a 19-year study on depression for NIMH. Like many of the DBSA advisory members, Fawcett is connected to other pharmaceutical company funded front groups, including the National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression (NARSAD), and the American Suicide Foundation (now American Foundation for Suicide Prevention). He is also Chair of the Mood Disorders Work Group of the DSM-V (Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) Task Force—a task force whose members have come under scrutiny for their financial ties to drug companies.
Fawcett’s financial disclosure includes: Abbott Laboratories, Alphapharm, Eli Lilly, Wyeth, Merck (Merck Manual, and has a commercial relationship with the company) and has been an expert witness in cases involving pharmaceutical companies.
- MARK S. BAUER, MD, Associate Professor of Psychiatry Brown University School of Medicine; Chief, Mental Health & Behavioral Sciences Service Providence, Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Served on the Scientific Advisory Board of the DBSA for over a decade. Has served as Principal Investigator on federal grants each year since residency and has received awards for research, teaching, administration, and clinical care, including twice being named Exemplary Psychiatrist by NAMI. He was a member of the Moods Disorders DSM-IV Task force, along with Martin Keller, David Dunner, and A. John Rush (psychiatrists investigated by Congress for their conflicts of interest with drug companies.)
- Bauer, along with at least six other DBSA Advisory Board members—Charles L. Bowden (financial ties to Abbot, GSK, Janssen), Joseph Calabrese (Abbot, GSK, Janssen), Alan Gelenberg (GSK), Michael E. Thase (GSK, Janssen), Gary S Sachs (sits on Advisory Board, Speakers Bureau and is consultant for, Grants from Abbot, GSK, Janssen) and John M. Zajecka (Abbot, GSK) —conducted an $26.8 MILLION NIMH-FUNDED clinical study on the so-called Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) coordinated by Massachusetts General Hospital, to examine the course of the “disorder and the effectiveness of current treatments,” including at least 7 drugs. Each of those involved in the NIMH-funded study had ties to drug companies (see above) that make the drugs studied. These included: valproate (Depakote Depakene, Abbott) bupropion (Wellbutrin, GSK), paroxetine (Paxil/GSK), lamotrigine (Lamactil/GSK), risperidone (Risperdal/Janssen), and tranylcypromine (Parnate/GSK). The website for STEP-BD refers people to DBSA, NAMI and the APA. The findings of the study were that “medication is an important component in the treatment of bipolar illness” and gratuitously recommends psychotherapy to augment it.
- Bauer’s Financial Disclosure: Novartis, GSK, Solvay.
- JOSEPH R. CALABRESE, MD, Co-Director, NIMH-funded Bipolar Disorders Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio; Director, Mood Disorders Program, University Hospitals of Cleveland; Professor of Psychiatry, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine Cleveland, Ohio. Calabrese has received eight research grants from the NIMH and federal agencies and has received the NARSAD Lifetime Achievement Award for his research in “bipolar disorder.”
- Calabrese’s Financial Disclosure: Grant research support: Abbott, AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly, GSK, Janssen, Pfizer CIBA-GEIBY, E-Merck, Forest, Glaxo-Wellcome Pharmaceuticals, Lilly Research Labs, Parke-Davis Pharmaceuticals, Sandoz, SmithKline Pharmaceuticals, UCB Pharma, and Wyeth Ayerst. Also MacArthur Foundation, NARSAD, NIMH, Robert Wood Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Institute, and Stanley Foundation. Consultant or honoraria: Abbott, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Elan Pharmaceuticals, Eli Lilly, Glaxo-Wellcome, Janssen Cilag, Novartis, Parke-Davis, Servier, Shire Labs, SmithKline, Solvay/Wyeth. TAP Holdings, Teva Pharmaceuticals and UCB and Robert Wood Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Institute. Research funds: Health Resources and Services Administration, NARSAD, NIMH, The Cleveland Foundation, Department of Defense, and Stanley Medical Research Institute, Abbott Laboratories, AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly, GSK, Janssen, and RepliGen Corp (biopharmaceutical company).
- DAVID J. KUPFER, MD, Chair of the DSM-V Task Force and senior editor of the book A Research Agenda for DSM-V, which was published in 2002, produced in partnership with the APA, NIMH, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). He was a member of the DSM-IV Task Force and was vice chair of DBSA’s Scientific Advisory Council in 2003-2004. Member of The Dana Foundation.
- Kupfer also sits on the Scientific Committee of Fondazione IDEA, Italy, on the Board of Directors of National Foundation for Mental Health (founded in 2003 to generate “broad public and private support for a comprehensive and well-funded research agenda for” NIMH), Community Care Behavioral Health Organization.
- Kupfer’s Financial Disclosure: Innovative Medical Education, JK Associates (medical communications company working with major pharmaceutical companies), BodyMedia, Pharmedica Communications, Eli Lilly, Corcept, Forest, Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, Servier Amerique, Solvay Wyeth, Hoffman La Roche, Lundbeck, Novartis, and Heinz C. Prechter Fund for Manic Depression. (The Fund, named after businessman Heinz Prechter, supports research within the University of Michigan’s Depression Center, largely “major genetic research projects.” Mr. Prechter was in treatment at University of Michigan’s Depression Center and in 2001 committed suicide by hanging. The Center houses a “large-scale DNA repository” aimed at collecting DNA samples from 1,000 people diagnosed with “bipolar disorder” as well as 1,000 healthy individuals.)
- LAUREN B. MARANGELL, MD, Brown Foundation Chair of the Psychopharmacology of Mood Disorders in the Department of Psychiatry at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, where she is the Director of Mood Disorders Research. Following her residency, she spent three years at the NIMH as a Fellow and Senior Staff Fellow specializing in clinical research, psychopharmacology, and mood disorders. In 2007, she joined Eli Lilly as a “Distinguished Lilly Scholar focusing on depression and related disorders.” She was a reviewer for the NIMH and the United Kingdom Medical Research Council, is co-director of the NIMH Bipolar Trials Network and was a member of the FDA Psychopharmacology Advisory Panel. She participated in NAMI’s drug company funded “Campaign to End Discrimination” and received NAMI’s Exemplary Psychiatrist Award. Conducted study on Vegas Nerve Stimulation (VNS Therapy—a Cyberonics “treatment”) with A. John Rush, Harold Sackeim Ph.D.
- Marangell’s Financial Disclosure: Grant/Research Support: Cyberonics, Eli Lilly, Martek Biosciences Consultant: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cyberonics, Forest, Glaxo Wellcome SmithKline, Janssen, Eli Lilly, Novartis, Wyeth Ayerst, Honoraria: AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cyberonics, Forest, Glaxo Wellcome SmithKline, Janssen, Eli Lilly, Novartis, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Wyeth-Ayerst. Other financial disclosures: Aspect Medical Systems, Medtronics, Inc, Neuronetics, Inc and Stanley Medical Research Institute.
- MICHAEL E. THASE, MD, VICE CHAIR of the DBSA Committee: Professor of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine and the Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic. Thase has directed the Depression Treatment and Research Program at Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic since its inception in 1987 and is now the chief of adult academic psychiatry. Member of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ICNP). Editor-in-chief of Psychopharmacology Bulletin.
- Thase’s Financial Disclosure: Grant/Research Support: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cyberonics, Merck, Organon, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Wyeth Ayerst Laboratories, Eli Lilly, and Sepracor. Consultant: AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cephalon, Cyberonics, Forest Pharmaceuticals, GSK, Glaxo-Wellcome Inc./CeNeRx Pharmaceuticals, Eli Lilly, Janssen, MedAvante, Inc, Merck, Neuronetics, Inc, Novartis, Organon, Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Sepracor Inc, Shire, Supernus Pharmaceuticals, and Wyeth Ayerst. Speakers’ Bureau: AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cyberonics, Eli Lilly, Forest, GSK, Glaxo-Wellcome Inc./CeNeRx Pharmaceuticals, Organon, Parke-Davis Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Sanofi-Aventis, SmithKline Beecham, Solvay, and Wyeth Ayerst Laboratories, Inc. Owns stock in MedAvante, Inc. (a company that provides services to improve methodology and objectivity in CNS clinical trials.) Receives book royalties from American Psychiatric Publishing, Guilford Publications, and Herald House. Many of the studies in which Thase has been involved are with Wyeth employees.
- MYRNA WEISSMAN, Professor of Epidemiology & Psychiatry, Chief of the Division of Clinical & Genetic Epidemiology Columbia University. On the Board of Directors of Screening for Mental Health. In 2009, she reported that she receives research funds from NIMH, NIDA, NARSAD and the Sackler Foundation and receives royalties from the Oxford University Press, Perseus Press, American Psychiatric Publishing, and MultiHealth Systems. Weissman has been a consultant to the World Health Organization, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. She also worked on the TV Production: Four Lives: Portraits of Manic Depression. Member of The Dana Foundation.
- In 1999, the New York Post, in an article titled, “ANALYZE THIS: DOCS GET DRUG COMPANY $$,” reported: “The world’s pharmaceutical giants are pouring big bucks into the bank accounts of state psychiatrists and researchers in charge of drug experiments” on New Yorkers. Among others, the article cited Weissman, “who fattened her bank account with speaking fees from Wyeth-Ayerst and Solvay and is running a Solvay-sponsored study.” Serving the interests of the pharmaceutical industry, reporting in 1992 and 1996 in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), “Weissman and colleagues found that more and more Americans are becoming depressed, they are getting depressed at a younger age, and the severity and frequency of depression is rising.”
- Weissman’s Financial Disclosure: Solvay and Wyeth and has significant other interest or affiliation with GSK. In the past five years she’s also received investigator-initiated grants from Eli Lilly, and the Josiah Macy Foundation (famous in the 1950s as a conduit for funneling CIA money into mind control research, including LSD experiments—one in which psychiatrists kept subjects hallucinating on the drug for 77 days).
- GEORGE S. ALEXOPOULOS, MD, Professor of Psychiatry, Founder and Director of the Weill-Cornell Institute of Geriatric Psychiatry; the Director of the NIMH-supported Advanced Center for Interventions and Services Research (ACISR) in Late-Life Depression. In 2004, he co-authored the “expert consensus guideline series” for “using antipsychotic agents in older patients,” published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. A survey was conducted on 48 “national experts” for their opinion of prescribing antipsychotics, including which ones. They recommended the use of antipsychotics for the elderly with “agitated dementia.” Among the antipsychotics recommended risperidone (risperdal/Janssen) was the first-line choice for this. Quetiapine and olanzapine were high second-line options—this despite an FDA warning in March 2003 that found resperidal could cause heart problems and stroke in elderly with dementia-related psychosis and had not been shown to be safe in treatment of such patients. It is noted that prior to the survey being sent it was already known that there were warnings about the atypical (new) antipsychotics causing not only cardiovascular problems but also debilitating tardive dyskinesia (uncontrollable shaking of the extremities from damage to the nervous system) and the potentially fatal neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Janssen funded the “teleconference” for these guidelines held on October 13, 2003.
- Alexopoulos’s Financial Disclosure: Research grant funding: Forest and Cephalon; Participated in scientific advisory board meetings for Forest; Lectures supported by Forest, Cephalon, Bristol-Myers Squibb, GSK, Pfizer, Janssen, and Eli Lilly; Other Support from Comprehensive Neuroscience for “development of treatment guidelines in late-life psychiatric disorders.”
- LORI L. ALTSHULER, MD, Director, Mood Disorders Research Program University of California, Los Angeles UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute & Hospital Center for the Health Sciences Los Angeles, CA, after completing a two-year fellowship at the Biological Psychiatry Branch of NIMH. Has received several NARSAD awards.
- She was one of 13 researchers that published as study in JAMA in February 2006, recommending antidepressants for pregnant women without disclosing the authors’ financial ties to antidepressant drug manufacturers. The authors—most of them leading psychiatrists at Massachusetts General Hospital, the University of California Los Angeles and Emory University—said their results challenged a common assumption that hormonal changes during pregnancy protected expectant mothers against depression. The study reported financial relationships with antidepressant makers for only two of the 13 authors of the study, Emory’s Drs. Stowe and Jeffrey Newport. But at least seven others had relationships that were not disclosed. Among the most significant of the missing disclosures were those of the second listed author—Altshuler, reported The Wall Street Journal. Studies had already proven that antidepressants taken during pregnancy place newborns at risk of birth defects. [In September 2009, the first of 600 pending lawsuits against GlaxoSmithKline, the maker of Paxil, started in Philadelphia alleging Paxil caused birth defects in an infant and resulted in a $2.5 million judgment for the family.]
Altshuler’s Financial Disclosure: Grant/research support: Abbott, Eli Lilly, Forest, Glaxo-Welcome (GSK), SmithKline Beecham (GSK), Solvay, Bristol-Meyers Squibb; Paid Consultant: Abbott, Bristol-Meyers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Forest, Janssen, Parke-Davis, Solvay, AstraZeneca; Advisory board: Abbot, Eli Lilly, Glaxo-Welcome, Solvay, Pfizer; Honoraria: Abbott, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Forest, Janssen; Speakers bureau: Abbott, Forest, Eli Lilly.
- WILLIAM BEARDSLEE, MD, Psychiatrist-in-Chief, Department of Psychiatry Children’s Hospital Boston, MA. He directs the Preventive Intervention Project at Judge Baker Children’s Center and also the Prevention of Depression Study. He is on the Board of the Rosalyn Carter Mental Health Task Force, Mental Health America, and Families for Depression Awareness. He serves on the Institute of Medicine’s Committee on the Prevention of Mental Disorders, Early Education and Prevention, and on the Board of Children, Youth and Families of the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences. He also serves on the Advisory Board of the Center for Mental Health Services of SAMHSA and on the Carter Center Task Force on Mental Health.
- He was a member of the Scientific Advisors for the 2003 World Federation for Mental Health Day. WFMH has been funded by drug companies, including, Janssen, AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly, Pfizer and Wyeth Ayerst.
- He was one of the researchers and co-authors of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP)-funded study published in January 2004 that claimed that SSRI antidepressants did not increase the risk of suicide in children and adolescents (in contrast to evidence-based research that found a high risk.) The ANCP’s membership has heavy ties to the pharmaceutical industry.
- He was a contributor to the 2006 “Depression Wellness Guide,” produced by The Families for Depression Awareness, which says, “People with bipolar disorder must take a mood stabilizer medication such as lithium,” cites a study that claims medications lower suicide attempts, and “many side effects can be minimized with minor adjustments to treatment.” The guide was produced from unrestricted educational grants from Eli Lilly, Forest, GSK, Pfizer, and Wyeth.
- BORIS BIRMAHER, MD, Professor of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh. Faculty of Columbia University’s Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Trained in child psychiatry at Columbia University, New York Psychiatric Institute in New York. Financial Disclosure: Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Solvay, and NIMH.
- CHARLES L. BOWDEN, MD, Professor of Psychiatry & Pharmacology, The University of Texas Health Science Center. Financial Disclosure: Research grants: Abbott, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Elan Pharmaceuticals, GSK, Janssen, Lilly Research, NIMH, Parke Davis, RW Johnson Pharmaceutical Institute, Smith Kline Beecham, and Stanley Medical Research Foundation. Speakers’ bureau: Abbott, AstraZeneca, GSK, Janssen, Lilly Research, and Pfizer. Consultant: Abbott, GSK, Janssen, Lilly Research, Sanofi Synthelabo, and UCB Pharma.
- DENNIS S. CHARNEY, MD, Dean of Research, Mt. Sinai Medical Center New York, NY; Chief of the Mood and Anxiety Disorder Research Program and the Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch at NIMH from 2000-2004. He was the Principal Investigator of the VA National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and the NIMH Yale Mental Health Clinical Research Center. He has been a member of the Food and Drug Administration Psychopharmacologic Drug Advisory Committee.
- Charney has chaired the Board of Scientific Counselors for the NIMH and the Scientific Advisory Board of the Anxiety Disorders Association of America (ADAA), and is a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of NARSAD and NAMI. Editor of the journal Biological Psychiatry.
- Charney holds a patent in the drug ketamine. On its website DBSA makes claims that neither it or its advisors and consultants “endorse or recommend the use of any specific treatment or medication,” but advertises for readers to participate in a clinical drug trial—ketamine (patented by one of its own advisory board members!).
- In 2006, the journal, Neuropsychopharmacology, printed a correction after revelations that it did not disclose financial ties of authors of a paper reviewing a new treatment for depression—VNS (Vegas Nerve Stimulation) Therapy—a device manufactured by Cyberonics. The treatment, a $15,000- $25,000 chest implant that sends pulses of electricity to the brain, was FDA-approved for depression in 2005 after intense debate over its effectiveness. Dr. Charles Nemeroff, who conducted a study with Charney and A. John Rush (both Nemeroff and Rush were under Senate investigation for their conflicts of interest), was the editor of Neuropsychopharmacology. (Nemeroff stepped down as editor as a result).
- In 2006, NAMI—which also has Charney as an advisor—became a corporate partner with Cyberonics, which gave it $75,000 for its “Campaign for the Mind of America.”
- As the New York Times exposed in July 2006, “By the time Cyberonics published its data widely — in Biological Psychiatry, the journal edited by Dr. Charney — the product was already approved and the game over.” In September that year, Public Citizen petitioned the FDA to reverse its decision on VNS and that it not be covered by Medicare. It cited among other things that the academics that had conducted the VNS studies had received consultancy fees from Cyberonics.
- Charney Financial Disclosure: Consultant: Abbott, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Forest, GSK, Janssen, Merck, Neurogen, Neuroscience Education Institute, Cyberonics, Novartis, Orexigen, Organon, Otsuka, Somerset (Mylan), Wyeth-Ayerst and Unilever UK Central Resources Ltd. Research Grants: Forest, Aventis, and GSK.
- PAULA J. CLAYTON, MD, Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry, Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at University of New Mexico School of Medicine; Medical Director, The American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (another front group) New York. In 1967 Clayton and her mentor, George Winokur, were the first Americans to describe the separation of mood disorders into so-called “unipolar” and “bipolar illnesses.” A member of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP), a group of psychiatrists with strong ties to pharmaceutical companies. She helped develop a “Consensus Statement” on Electroshock “treatment” (460 volts of electricity that damages the brain and ruins memory) which claimed that despite ECT being the “most controversial treatment in psychiatry,” it is “demonstrably effective” while also causing “acute confusional states and persistent memory deficits for events during the months surrounding the ECT treatment.” Financial Disclosure: Speakers Bureau, Forest and Eli Lilly. Stockholder: Forest, Eli Lilly, and Merck.
- LARRY CULPEPPER, MD, MPH; Professor and Chief of Family Medicine Boston University Medical Center. Has conducted federally-funded studies of depression and anxiety “disorders,” has chaired or served as a member of research grant review committees for five NIH and other federal agencies, is editor of the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Primary Care Companion and a member of the Anxiety Disorders Association of America Scientific Advisory Board. Financial Disclosure: Consultant: AstraZeneca; Cephalon, Forest; Eli Lilly; Pfizer Somaxon Pharmaceuticals, and Wyeth. Speakers’ Bureau: Forest and Wyeth. Advisory Board: AstraZeneca, Cephalon Inc, Eli Lilly, Forest, Pfizer, Somaxon Pharmaceuticals Inc, Takeda Pharmaceuticals, Wyeth.
- PEDRO L. DELGADO, MD, Professor and Chairman Department of Psychiatry, Associate Dean for Faculty Development & Professionalism, The University of Texas Health Science Center. Conducted study on “assessing whether image-guided, robotically positioned transmissions of magnetic waves to the brain can improve the mood of individuals with major depression” on subjects aged 18 to 70. He is a member of the NIH Behavioral and Biobehavioral Processes Study Section and serves on the editorial boards of many prominent psychiatric journals. He was a contributor to fellow DBSA advisory board members’ Alan Schatzberg and David J. Kupfer’s book Textbook of Mood Disorders. Financial Disclosure: Grant support: AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Forest, GSK, Janssen, NIMH, Novartis, Organon, Pfizer, Pharmacia, Solvay and Wyeth. Advisory board member: Boehringer Ingelheim, Eli Lilly, GSK, Janssen, Organon, and Wyeth; Speakers’ bureau: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, GSK, Janssen, Organon, Pharmacia, Solvay and Wyeth. Also Corcept Therapeutics, Medtronics, Neuronetics, NIH Institute, Pfizer, and Wyeth-Ayerst.
- J. RAYMOND DEPAULO, JR, MD, Henry Phipps Professor and Director of Psychiatry, Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Also serves on advisory boards NARSAD and the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (AFSP), National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association and a founding director of the Depression and Related Affective Disorders Association (DRADA). Has received awards from the NIMH and NARSAD. Member of The Dana Foundation.
- He was part of a “Decade of the Brain” project on “genetics of Bipolar Disorder” though admitted, “we still have not found any of the genes that confer vulnerability [cause] to these disorders.” [Decade of the Brain (1990-2000) was a campaign devised by former NIMH director, Lewis Judd to garner more funds from Congress for NIMH research. It coincided with the release of Prozac, falsely marketed as correcting a chemical imbalance in the brain causing depression—which has never been proved.] He is a member of the DSM-V Mood Disorders Work Group. Financial Disclosure: NIMH, GSK, Eli Lilly, Abbott, Wyeth-Ayerst, Pharmacia & Upjohn, U.S. Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer, Janssen Pharmaceutica and Research Foundation, Forest, and Solvay. Grant research from Stanley Foundation (2002-2006). He is on the Board of Directors of the National Foundation for Mental Health, which partners with CIGNA Behavioral Health, Eli Lilly, GSK, Janssen, Magellan Health Services, and others.
- DAVID L. DUNNER, MD, Professor and Director, Center of Anxiety & Depression, Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. He spent two years at the NIMH and was involved in research studies of bipolar depression. After NIMH, he spent eight years at Columbia University (Assistant, then Associate Professor of Clinical Psychiatry) and the New York State Psychiatric Institute. In a 2006 press release, he was quoted supporting VNS Therapy (see Dennis S. Charney above) that uses a device manufactured by Cyberonics. Also endorsed by NAMI in the same release, it doesn’t mention that Dunner chaired a symposium sponsored by Cyberonics. He is known for ghostwriting an article that appeared in the March 1995 issue of the journal European Neuropsychopharmacology on behalf of SmithKline-Beecham (which became GSK). Dunner claimed to have analyzed the data of clinical studies involving GSK’s Paxil and concluded that it was less likely to lead to suicidal thoughts than the older antidepressant imipramine or a placebo (sugar pill). Dunner had never looked at any of the data while still listed as an “author” of the article. Yet he claimed “Suicides and suicide attempts occurred less frequently with Paxil than with either placebo or active controls.” Court records showed this was false.
- Dunner was also a member of the 1991 FDA Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee that exonerated Prozac, saying that it did not cause suicidal or violent behavior—found false. At the time Dunner made the startling acknowledgment in his disclosure statement that he had two $100,000 studies pending with Eli Lilly, the maker of Prozac. Although Dunner reported having received approximately $100,000 to conduct an ongoing study of Paxil, he made no mention that this study also included Prozac. He failed to report that he had been paid in the past to conduct clinical trials of Prozac. Dunner had been lead investigator for Eli Lilly in one of four Prozac placebo-controlled clinical studies that Lilly submitted to the FDA to win approval to market the drug. In one instance, he conducted a clinical trial for Prozac involving 100 people. The results of these tests were submitted by Lilly with its New Drug Application, seeking FDA approval of Prozac. One day after the FDA hearing, Dunner was scheduled to speak at a Lilly-sponsored seminar in Pittsburgh on “depressive disorders,” with two similar events following shortly thereafter.
- Dunner had already appeared at five such seminars and, at the time of the FDA hearing, knew he was scheduled to attend three more. Despite this, and despite his financial connection to Lilly, he easily convinced the FDA he had “no pending commitments at the present time” which would represent a conflict of interest. Indeed, his waiver declared he had no current commitments to speak. Five days after the committee rendered its pro-Prozac opinion, Dunner received yet another Lilly grant for a new study on the effects of Prozac on sleep patterns. Lilly had showered some $1.4 million on Dunner since 1982.
- DWIGHT L. EVANS, MD: Ruth Meltzer Professor of Psychiatry and Chairman Professor of Psychiatry, Medicine, and Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and Health System, Philadelphia, PA. Has been awarded by the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (2003), was elected its president in 2005 and still sits on its scientific advisory council, along with David Shaffer (TeenScreen) and Charles Nemeroff, J. John Mann (Pharma court expert used to disclaim antidepressants causing suicide), Frederick Goodwin, Alan Schatzberg (the latter two under Congressional investigation for their conflicts of interest, along with Nemeroff), and others. He co-wrote The Physician’s Guide to Depression and Bipolar Disorders (2005) with Dennis Charney (see above) and Lydia Lewis (former president DBSA).
- Evan’s Financial Disclosure: Grant/research: Cephalon, NIMH; Consultant: for Abbott, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Otsuka, Eli Lilly, Forest, GSK, Janssen, Pfizer Neuronetics, Pamlab, and Wyeth.
- ELLEN FRANK, PHD, Professor of Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic Pittsburgh, PA. She is conducting a joint study with researchers at the University of Pisa, Italy, aimed at deriving algorithms (flow charts) that will enable clinicians to determine whether a “depressed” patient should be treated with medication or psychotherapy. She was a member of Task Force on DSM-IV and is currently a member of the DSM-V Review Mood Disorders Work Group. Chair of the Food and Drug Administration Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Panel and the National Advisory Mental Health Council (advises the Secretary of Health and Human Services; the Director, National Institutes of Health; and the Director, National Institute of Mental Health, on all policies and activities relating to the conduct and support of mental health research, research training, and other programs of the Institute.) She is an Honorary Fellow of the APA. She is also on the advisory councils of NAMI and ADAA (Anxiety Disorders Association of America). Member of The Dana Foundation.
- Frank’s Financial Disclosure: Eli Lilly, Forest, Forest Research Institute; Guilford Press, Guilford Pharmaceuticals, H. Lundbeck A/S, Novartis, Pfizer, Servier, NIMH. DSM-V disclosure lists significant interests (2005-2007) in Innovative Medical Education, Eli Lilly, Pfizer, Servier, Forest Research Institute, Physicians Postgraduate Press, LLC, Medesta Associates, Universal CIT, Novartis, Cardinal Health, Central Services, The Pittsburgh Foundation, Lundbeck, and Fine Foundation.
- MARK A. FRYE, MD: Professor of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN. Formerly the Director of the UCLA Bipolar Disorder Research Program (1998-2006). On the editorial board of The Journal of Bipolar Disorders: Reviews & Commentaries and Acta Neuropsychiatrica and is Vice President of Global Outreach for the International Society of Bipolar Disorder.
- Frye’s Financial Disclosure: Consultant: Abbott Laboratories, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Bristol Myers Squibb, Cephalon, Elan Pharmaceuticals, Eli Lilly, GSK, Janssen Pharmaceutica-Cilag, Johnson & Johnson, PRD Novartis, Ortho-McNeil, Otsuka, Pfizer Inc., UCB Pharma: Speakers’ Bureau: Abbott Laboratories, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, GSK, Janssen Pharmaceutica-Cilag, Novartis, Ortho McNeil, Otsuka Pharmaceuticals. Additionally, Indevus Pharmaceuticals, Wyeth, Stanley Medical Research Institute, NIMH, and American Foundation for Suicide Prevention.
- ALAN J. GELENBERG, MD, Professor Emeritus and Head of the Dept. of Psychiatry, College of Medicine University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. President and CEO, Healthcare Technology System, a company that designs “protocols, perform research, and provide clinical research consultation to pharmaceutical companies and healthcare organizations.” Since 1987 Gelenberg has been Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry and Founding author of Biological Therapies in Psychiatry Newsletter. He was also on the M.I.T. faculty. He chairs the APA workgroup on Treatment Guidelines for Major Depressive Disorder and sat on several committees of the NIMH. Past President of the West Coast College of Biological Psychiatry. On the Professional Advisory Council of the Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Information Service (a “group” funded with an educational grant from Eli Lilly and Janssen that make antipsychotics that cause NMS.) Financial Disclosure: Advisory Board Fee/Consultant Fee: AstraZeneca, Best Practice, Cyberonics, Eli Lilly, GSK, Forest, Jazz, Novartis, Pfizer, Wyeth, ZARS Pharma; Grant/Research Support: Eli Lilly. Speaker’s Bureau/CME/Honorarium: Wyeth.
- BARBARA GELLER, MD, Professor of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO. She has been principal investigator on multiple NIMH-funded grants and served on numerous federal committees. Awarded NAMI Exemplary psychiatrist award. She has written for Journal Watch Psychiatry since 1997, specializing in articles on genetics and child psychiatry. She co-authored the notorious Paxil pediatric study #329, whose lead author, Martin Keller, MD, admitted he’d never fully studied the data in the study before declaring Paxil was safe for pediatric use. He was replaced as chairman of psychiatry at Brown University because of his conflicts of interest. The Glaxo-paid authors of study #329 helped the company promote the myth that Paxil was “safe and effective” for use in children as early as 1998. But internal Glaxo data from pediatric Paxil trials were negative and harmful. Geller helped pioneer the theory that “bipolar” symptoms in children “leads to severe mood swings in 44 percent of adults.” Treatments for such included “medications such as lithium, Abbott Laboratories’ Depakote, Johnson & Johnson’s Risperdal, and Eli Lilly & Co.’s Zyprexa.” She is also listed as one of five co-authors of the “Children’s Medication Algorithm Project” (CMAP) with Karen Wagner, and Neal Ryan, and A. John Rush. This is the children’s version of TMAP and is promoted as a “disease management program” to “develop children’s [psychotropic] medication algorithms” (flow charts determining which drugs they should be prescribed to ensure doctors receive insurance remibursement). The program was halted because the Texas AG objected to it following exposure of the conflicts of interest with TMAP (for adults) and drug companies. Described as “one of the major proponents of diagnosing children as bipolar,” Geller once made an astounding statement, acknowledging the absence of science in psychiatry: “The science is nowhere near where it is in other branches of medicine.”
- Geller is a on the Scientific Council of the “Child and Adolescent Bipolar Foundation,” (CABF) along with Boris Birmaher, Joseph Biederman, Neal D. Ryan, Karen Dineen Wagner and Melissa DelBello (under Senate investigation for conflicts of interest violations), and Kay Redfield Jamison. The group claims to have been founded in 1999 “by a national steering committee of concerned parents.” In 1994, “childhood mood disorders” were included in the DSM IV. Within five years, CABF was formed. Multi-site studies of “early-onset” bipolar in children began to be funded by the NIMH and the Stanley Foundation, resulting in more psychiatrists diagnosing and treating the “condition.” In 2005, the “Treatment Guidelines for Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder,” written by “a consensus conference of experts convened by CABF” was published. Authors included DBSA and CABF’s Karen Wagner and Boris Birmaher and the study was sponsored by the CABF, supported by unrestricted educational grants from Abbott, AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly, Forest, Janssen, Novartis, and Pfizer. Contributors to the “guidelines” were Joseph Biederman, Gabrielle Carlson, Melissa P DelBello, Paul E. Keck, and Robert Hirschfeld—all with major ties to the pharmaceutical industry—and who helped develop “medication algorithms” similar to CMAP.
- Geller has been a voting Consultant to the FDA’s Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee Financial Disclosure: Speakers’ Bureau Solvay Pharmaceuticals. Grant support: Layton Bioscience.
- ROBERT N. GOLDEN, MD, Professor and Chair, Department of Psychiatry University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC: Dean. 1983 to 1985, Golden was a medical staff (research) fellow in the Clinical Pharmacology Section of the NIMH Intramural Research Program. From 1994 through 2005, Golden served as chair of the Department of Psychiatry at the UNC School of Medicine. Since 1994, the department’s National Institutes of Health (NIH) research portfolio grew from approximately $3 million to more than $29 million, placing it in the top 10 psychiatry departments in terms of NIH competitive awards. Golden is on the Board of Directors of the National Foundation for Mental Health (“educates” legislators and media and partners with Eli Lilly, GSK, Janssen, Magellan Healthcare Services, PacifiCare Behavioral Health Inc, and United Behavioral Health.)
- Golden’s Financial Disclosure: Grant/Research: Forest, Organon, Pfizer. Consultant/Advisory board: Bristol-Myers Squibb, GSK, Janssen Pharmaceutica, Ovation, Pfizer and Wyeth, Speakers’ Bureau: Organon.
- JOHN F. GREDEN, MD, Rachel Upjohn Professor of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, Executive Director, University of Michigan Depression Center Senior Research Scientist, Mental Health Research Institute, Chair, Department of Psychiatry University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Past president of both the Psychiatric Research Society and the Society of Biological Psychiatry; Senior Editor of Scientific Publications for the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP) from 1998-2001. He’s on the Board of Directors of the National Foundation for Mental Health which partners with several major drug companies and who’s Executive Committee includes Lewis Judd (former NIMH director), and Steven Sharfstein (former APA president).
- Greden’s Financial Disclosure: Scientific Advisory Board: Eli Lilly, Neuronetics, Cyberonics. Consultant: Bristol Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Neuronetics, Pfizer, Sepacor, and Wyeth. Stocks/Equity: Originus. He was editor of the University of Michigan Depression Center Network Newsletter, which in 2002 listed Eli Lilly for its $750,000 gift.
- ROBERT HIRSCHFELD, MD, Professor and Chair, University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. He spent six years as Chair of the Scientific Advisory Board of the National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association (now DBSA) and brings with him access to many pharmaceutical companies. During an 11 year period (1992-2003) he received more than $5.7 million in pharmaceutical company grant money for research—an average of over half a million dollars a year. Between 1974 and 1990 he also received $25 million from NIMH for clinical studies. He spent 18 years at NIMH, where he was Chief of the Mood, Anxiety and Personality Disorders Research Branch. He was also the Clinical Director of NIMH’s Depression/Awareness, Recognition, and Treatment (D/ART) Program, launched in 1988—attributed to causing more people to seek treatment for “depression” and, in fact, potentially tripling the number of Americans prescribed antidepressants for the years 1987 to 1997. It incorporated free screening for depression to the general public. D/ART also: “Encourages and trains health care professionals to recognize the signs of manic-depressive illness and utilize the most up-to-date treatment approaches” [drugs]; and “organizes citizens’ advocacy groups to extend the D/ART program” and works with the industry to improve insurance coverage for “depressive disorders.” Hirschfeld co-authored a study of D/ART with Lewis Judd (former NIMH director seeking greater research budgets), Frederick Goodwin and Daryl Regier.
- Hirschfeld was Chair of Work Group to Develop Guidelines for Bipolar Disorders of the Task Force on DSM-IV, which was exposed in a 2006 study because of its Task Force members’ undisclosed financial ties to drug companies. He’s also on the Board of Directors of the Anxiety Disorders Association of America and has served as president of the Board of Directors for American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. An interview with Hirschfeld regarding a “bipolar screening tool” he developed—prompted by a man who worked for Avis Pharmaceuticals—was published “in collaboration with NARSAD, The Mental Health Research Association” and “supported by an educational grant from GlaxoSmithKline.”
- Hirschfeld financial Disclosure: Advisor/consultant: Abbott, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Forest, GSK, Janssen, Eli Lilly, Novartis, Organon, Inc., Pfizer, Pfizer-Roerig, Shire, Organon, Sandoz, Pharmacia and Upjohn, UCB Pharma, and Wyeth-Ayerst, and Zonagen, Inc.
- KAY REDFIELD JAMISON, PH.D. Clinical psychologist and Professor of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, who received the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention Research Award (1996), a National Mental Health Association Award (1995) and awards from the National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association (NDMDA), NARSAD and NAMI. She co-authored Manic-Depressive Illness with Dr. Frederick Goodwin. Her book, a memoir, An Unquiet Mind tells patients, among many other things, how destructive not taking their medicine can be. She has written four books on brain chemistry. Member of The Dana Foundation.
- Jamison’s Financial Disclosure: Abbott Laboratories, Solvay, GSK, Eli Lilly, and AstraZeneca.
- PAUL E. KECK, JR., MD, Professor & Vice Chairman for Research, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine Cincinnati, OH. Co-Director of the Biological Psychiatry Program. Director of Scientific Development for the Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Information Service (NMSIS) [Psychotropic drugs cause the potentially fatal condition.] He serves on the APA’s Workgroup to Develop Practice Guidelines for Treatment of Patients with Bipolar Disorders and currently serves on the APA Institute for Research and Education. Dr. Keck was a member of the FDA Psychopharmacologic Drug Advisory Committee. Received a NDMDA Young Investigator Award, Senior Investigator Award from DBSA, NAMI “Exemplary Psychiatrist” Award, and the Wyeth-Ayerst AADPRT Mentorship Award. He has written about “serotonin syndrome,” a potentially fatal complication of treatment with SSRI antidepressants. In 2005, he was a member of the consensus panel—along with other DBSA advisory board members—that developed “Treatment Guidelines for Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder.” The Children and Adolescents Bipolar Foundation (CABF), supported by unrestricted educational grants from Abbott, AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly, Forest, Janssen, Novartis, and Pfizer, sponsored the study. The guidelines included “medication treatment algorithms” similar to CMAP.
- Keck’s Financial Disclosure: Research Support: Abbott, AstraZeneca, Bristol Meyers Squibb, GSK, Elan, Janssen, Eli Lilly, Merck, Pfizer, NIMH, NIDA, Organon, Stanley Medical Research Institute, UCB Pharma. Consultant /Scientific Advisory Board: Abbott, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Corcept, Janssen, Eli Lilly, GSK, Novartis, Ortho-McNeil, Pfizer, Pharmacia Corp. Shire, Solvay, UCB Pharma. He is a principal or co-investigator on research studies sponsored by Abbott AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, GSK, Janssen, Pfizer and UCB Pharma. Also NIMH, NIDA and the Stanley Medical Research Institute.
- MARTIN B. KELLER, MD, Chair of the Dept. of Psychiatry & Human Behavior, Brown University, Providence, RI. He obtained research grants from GSK and was accused of getting ghostwriters to write the controversial Paxil study 329 that covered up adverse effects of the drug on children. In 1999, it was disclosed that Keller earned more than $842,000 while at Brown—$556,000 in 1998 and $444,000 in 1997 that came from the pharmaceutical companies Pfizer, Bristol-Meyers Squibb, Wyeth-Ayerst and Eli Lilly—all of which manufacture the antidepressant drugs that he “lauded in a series of medical research reports.”
- After a three-year criminal investigation by the Attorney General’s Office, Brown University agreed to return $300,170 of taxpayer money to the state of Massachusetts for psychiatric research Keller’s psychiatry department never performed. Keller did not disclose the extent of his financial ties with companies to the medical journals that published his research—this included $93,199 in 1998. Additionally, he made $304,185 from antidepressant manufactures while touting these drugs’ benefits in several journals.
- In 2006, Keller acknowledged in deposition that he had been accepting tens of thousands of dollars in consulting fees from GSK and Scientific Therapeutics Information—a company acting on GSK’s behalf—during and after the years he was conducting crucial research on the efficacy and safety of Paxil in children. On the Board of Directors of The Jed Foundation.
- Financial Disclosure: Consultant or advisory board: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Collegium, Cypress Bioscience, Abbott, Cyberonics, Cephalon, Eli Lilly, Forest, GSK, Janssen, Merck, Mitsubishi Pharma (Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma), Novartis, Organon, Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Otsuka America, Pfizer, Pharmacia, Pharmastar, Sepracor, Sanofi-Synthelabo, Somerset (Mylan), Scirex, Vela Pharmaceuticals, and Wyeth; Research/grant support: Bristol Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Forest, Hoffman LaRoche (Roche), Janssen, Merck, Organon, Pfizer, SmithKline Beecham (GSK), Upjohn Co and Wyeth. Honoraria: Bristol Myers Squibb, Collegium, Cypress Bioscience, Cyberonics, Eli Lilly, Forest Laboratories, Merck, Organon, Ortho-McNeil-Janssen (Johnson & Johnson), Otsuka Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer, Pharmacia (Pfizer), Sepracor, Vela Pharmaceuticals (Pharmos Corp.) and Wyeth.
- RONALD C. KESSLER, PHD, professor of health care policy at Harvard Medical School. Kessler was the principal investigator of the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), the first nation survey of the “prevalence” of “psychiatric disorders” in the United States. The NCS was carried out in 1990 and 1992—based on DSM-III R—and a follow up survey 2001-2002, was called the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Kessler claimed that nearly every second American (48%) suffers from at least one mental illness during their lifetime and 27% of these experienced more than one. The second survey was used to test for “Adult ADHD,” using lay interviewers to conduct the assessments based on the subjective “Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV.” (DSM-IV has been exposed for its Task Force members’ undisclosed ties to the pharmaceutical industry.) Eli Lilly, who makes several ADHD drugs, funded the “Adult ADHD” assessment.
- NIMH, NIDA, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHS), the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the John W. Alden Trust funded the rest of the survey. On its website, NIMH says in that in order to diagnose Adult ADHD, the symptoms must have existed in childhood and continued into adulthood—referencing psychiatrists Joseph Biederman and Timothy Wilens as the source (both under Senate investigation for their conflicts of interest). Biederman has been on the Advisory Board of Eli Lilly and received research support from it. Wilens is on Lilly’s Speakers’ Bureau.
- Kessler has now been let loose on our men and women in uniform as the primary investigator of the Harvard Medical School site of a “major new research program funded by the US Army and the NIMH to study risk and protective factors for suicide among Army personnel.” No doubt it will lead to more soldiers being prescribed antidepressants made by the companies the research psychiatrists serve—drugs known to cause suicide.
- Kessler was one of a team of international psychiatrists and others that conducted “DSM–IV personality disorders” surveys for the World Health Organization, the results of which were published in 2009 in The British Journal of Psychiatry. Again, based on highly subjective (and unscientific) questionnaires, they found that 6.1% of the world’s population has a “personality disorder.” The survey was heavily funded by Big Pharma: Eli Lilly Foundation, Ortho-McNeil, GSK, Pfizer Foundation and Bristol-Myers Squibb, along with NIMH, the John D. as well as the Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the US Public Health Service, the Fogarty International Center, and the Pan American Health Organization. Other disclosures in the study: The Chinese World Mental Health Survey Initiative supported by the Pfizer Foundation, the Spain section from local agencies and an “unrestricted educational grant” from GSK. Lebanon’s “unrestricted grants” came from Janssen Cilag, Eli Lilly, GSK, Roche and Novartis. He’s also on the Scientific Advisory Council of The Jed Foundation.
- Kessler’s Financial Disclosure: Consultant: Bristol Myers Squibb, GSK, Kaiser Permanente, Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer Inc, Sanofi-Aventis, Shire and Wyeth-Ayerst. Advisory boards: Eli Lilly and Wyeth-Ayerst, Research support: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, GSK, Johnson & Johnson, Ortho-McNeil, Pfizer and Sanofi-Aventis.
- ROBERT L. JOHNSON, MD, FAAP, Professor of Pediatrics and Psychiatry, Director Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ. He served as the chair of the NIH Consensus Panel on Antisocial Behaviors in Youth. He is a member of National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine Health Care Services Board; the National Academy of Sciences National Research Council Committee on Improving Research Information and Data on Firearms. Also former member of the National Council of the NIMH. In 2003, he was appointed to the Task Force on Community Preventive Services—an independent, nonfederal, volunteer body of public health and prevention experts, whose members are appointed by the Director of CDC. The CPS made recommendations regarding numerous healthcare issues; including for mental health that proposed “home-based depression care management” involving “screening for depression,” “trained depression care managers,” and a “supervising psychiatrist.” He is the Director of the Dept. of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine and a member of the planning board for the U.S. Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence.
- NED H. KALIN, MD, Hedberg Professor and Chair, Dept. of Psychiatry University of Wisconsin Madison, WI, and with the Waisman Center and says his laboratory is “investigating the neurobiological basis of fear, anxiety, and depression at preclinical and clinical levels.” A Fellow of NIMH. DBSA Awardee in 2007. Member of the Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives. He was a co-signer of a letter to the Wall Street Journal in 2006, supporting Charles Nemeroff over his failure to disclose his financial involvement in Cyberonics, when promoting the success of one of their drugs in Neuropsychopharmacology when he was its editor.
- Kalin’s Financial Disclosure: D Grant/Research support from: NIH, Stanley Foundation, Wyeth-Ayerst; Consultant: Amgen, Bristol Meyers Squibb, Corcept, Cyberonics, Forest, GSK, Janssen, Lilly, NIMH, Neurocrine Biosciences, Neuronetics, Pfizer, Wyeth-Ayerst, Wildcat Management, LLC. Owner of Promoter Neurosciences LLC (“develops innovative therapeutic compounds to treat stress, anxiety, and depressive disorders through genetic regulation…”); Advisory Board: Janssen, GSK, Neuroscience Advisory Board, Neurocrine Biosciences Inc., Novartis, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Somerset (Mylan), Corcept, Cypress Bioscience, Inc., Sanofi-Synthelabo, Otsuka America, Eli Lilly, Petent Pharmaceuticals, Tularik, Neuronetics. Speaker’s Bureau: Wyeth Pharmaceuticals. Stock/Equity holder: Corcept, CeNeRx, Neurocrine.
- Corcept: Co-founded by Joseph K. Belanoff, MD who is CEO and Director, he has held various positions in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University since 1992. From 1997 to 2001, he served as the Director of Psychopharmacology at the outpatient division of the Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Hospital. His compensation in 2008 was almost $710,000. Corcept is also co-founded by Alan F. Schatzberg, MD who has served as a member of the board of directors and as chairman of the Scientific Advisory Board since 1998. According to a 2004 Stock Exchange report, Corcept reimburses each member of its scientific advisory board for out-of-pocket expenses incurred in connection with attending board meetings. It granted options to purchase its common stock to each member of its scientific advisory board. In August 1998, it granted an option to purchase 60,000 shares in common stock to Dr. Nemeroff and Bruce S. McEwen (both DBSA) at a price of $0.00033 per share. In April 2002, it granted Dr. Kalin an option to purchase 25,000 shares of its common stock at an exercise price of $7.00 per share.
- WAYNE KATON, MD, Professor, Vice Chair Director Division of Health Services and Psychiatric Epidemiology University of Washington Medical School Seattle, WA. He is the 2009 Treasurer of the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine (APM). He has been principal investigator on three NIMH awards regarding depression, anxiety, and somatoform disorders in primary care as well as the principal investigator of two studies funded by the Hartford and MacArthur foundations. Financial Disclosure: Honoraria or consulting fees: Eli Lilly, Forest Pfizer and Wyeth. Advisory Board: Eli Lilly, Wyeth; Speakers Bureau, Pfizer, Forest, GSK.
- K. RANGA KRISHNAN, MD, Professor & Chairman, Dept. of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC. He was Chair of NIMH’s Clinical Neuroscience and Biological Psychopathology Review Committee, has received NARSAD’s Investigator Award for Genetic Imaging in Study in Bipolar Disorder. On the Advisory Board of the Jed Foundation. Member of the Society of Biological Psychiatry, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP), and Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP), a global organization that emphasizes the use of psychotropic drugs. CINP evolved from a series of meetings in the late 50s convened by large pharmaceutical companies—Ceiga, Ciba, Roche, Sandoz and Rhone-Poulec—for the development of psychotropic drugs.
- Krishnan Financial Disclosure: Consultant: Amgen; Abbott, Bristol-Myers Squibb; CeNeRx Bio Pharma; Corcept (on Advisory Board); Cyberonics, GSK; Johnson & Johnson; Lundbeck; Merck; NPS Pharmaceuticals, Organon; Otsuka, Pfizer; Sepracor; Somerset (Mylan), Synaptic, Vela, and Wyeth. Holds patents for an anticonvulsant/antipsychotic drug and use of such for affecting weight loss. Research funding: Eisai and Pfizer, Abbott, Burroughs-Welcome (GSK), Ciba-Geigy (Novartis), Janssen Pharmaceutical Research Foundation (Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals), Parke-Davis Pharmaceutical Research (Pfizer), Sandoz (Novartis) and Upjohn (Pfizer).
- WILLIAM B. LAWSON, MD, PhD, DFAPA, Professor and Chair, Department of Psychiatry, Howard University Hospital, Washington, DC: Principal investigator for NIMH’s $6.5 million award to Howard University’s five-year Mood Research Program; Past president of Black Psychiatrists of America; Past chair of the National Medical Association’s Psychiatry and Behavioral Science Section. Former Vice Chair of the Addiction Council of the APA. Received NAMI’s Exemplary Psychiatrist Award and Outstanding Psychologist Award. He completed a fellowship in clinical psychopharmacology at the NIMH intramural program. On the Board of Directors of the National Foundation for Mental Health, which partners with the APA, American Psychological Association, CIGNA Behavioral Health, Eli Lilly, GSK, Janssen, Magellan Health Services, PacifiCare Behavioral Health, Inc., United Behavioral Health, ValueOptions Inc. and Wellpoint Health Networks Inc. Financial Disclosure: Clinical Grants: AstraZeneca, Pfizer, Consultant: AstraZeneca and Pfizer. Also disclosed: Janssen Pharmaceutica and Research Foundatio, U.S. Pharmaceuticals, AstraZeneca, Lilly Research Labs, Abbott and Bristol-Myers Squibb Company.
- KEH-MING LIN, MD, MPH, Director, Research Center on the Psychobiology of Ethnicity, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA: One of the principal investigators in the CATIE Schizophrenia Study Site She co-wrote chapter 43 in the DSM-IV Sourcebook, “Cultural Considerations on Cognitive Impairment Disorders.” Wrote Psychopharmacology & Psychobiology of Ethnicity. Financial Disclosure: Speaker fees/educational grants and travel assistance from Pfizer. Prior employment with Zeneca Pharmaceuticals.
- JUAN F. LOPEZ, MD, Associate Professor, Dept. of Psychiatry, Assistant Research Scientist, Mental Health Research Institute (now called The Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience Institute), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI: Financial Disclosure: Presented at the APA conference symposium that was supported by Pharmacia Inc. Presented at a symposium about depression, the activity made possible by an unrestricted grant from Novartis.
- JAMES P. MCCULLOUGH, JR., PHD, Professor of Psychology & Psychiatry. Unipolar Mood Disorders Institute, Virginia Commonwealth University Richmond, VA. Authored Treatment for Chronic Depression: Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP). Conducted a clinical trial on Sertraline (Zoloft) in 1999 with fellow DBSA Advisory Board members Martin B. Keller, Michael E. Thase, Alan J. Gelenberg, A. John Rush, Alan Schatzberg, Robert Hirschfeld, and Jan A. Fawcett. In another study, he claimed that the therapy he had developed over 25 years was as effective as taking Serzone, an antidepressant. He is a director of The CME (Continuing Medical Education) Institute, which is part of Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc., the publisher of The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry and its Primary Care Companion. Executive Directors and directors of this includes DBSA members, David Dunner, Alan J. Gelenberg, Mark S. Bauer, Joseph Biederman, Joseph R. Calabrese, Pedro L. Delgado, Barbara Geller, Frederick K. Goodwin Robert M. A. Hirschfeld, Wayne J. Katon, Paul E. Keck Jr., Martin B. Keller, Lauren B. Marangell, Susan L. McElroy, David J. Miklowitz, Charles B. Nemeroff, Charles O’Brien, Robert M. Post, A. John Rush Jr., Gary S. Sachs, Alan F. Schatzberg, Trisha Suppes, Michael E. Thase, Karen D. Wagner, and John M. Zajecka.
- SUSAN MCELROY, MD: Professor of Psychiatry, Medical Science Building University of Cincinnati Medical Center Cincinnati. Chief Research Officer, Lindner Center of HOPE, Cincinnati where DBSA colleague Paul. E. Keck is the CEO and President. Received the Young Investigator Award from NARSAD. In 2007, the University of Cincinnati was awarded a NIMH $9 million 5-year grant to find new ways to improve “bipolar” treatment. The investigators include Melissa DelBello (under Senate investigation over her failure to disclose pharmaceutical funding she had received), Paul Keck, and Susan McElroy. Financial Disclosure: Speakers’ Bureau: Ortho McNeil. Consultant: Abbott, Bristol-Myers Squibb, GSK, Janssen, Eli Lilly, Novartis, Ortho McNeil, Wyeth; Research/grant support: AstraZeneca Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eisai Inc, Forest, GSK, Eli Lilly, Ortho McNeil, Merck, Pfizer, Sanofi-Synthelabo, UCB Pharmaceuticals. Further disclosure: NIMH, Aventis, Somaxon Pharmaceuticals and Stanley Medical Research Institute.
- BRUCE S. MCEWEN, PhD, Alfred E. Mirsky Professor, Harold and Margaret Milliken Hatch Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, The Rockefeller University New York, NY. McEwen studies how stress and sex hormones act on the brain. He’s past president of the Society for Neuroscience. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the Institute of Medicine. In 2009, he received the Gold Medal award from the Society for Biological Psychiatry and in 2005, a NARSAD award ($40,000). He is a member of NARSAD’s Scientific Council. He was on the Advisory Committee to the Director of NIH, December 2004. Financial Disclosure: He is a Scientific Advisory Board Member of Corcept Pharmaceuticals along with Alan Schatzberg, Ned Kalin and K. Ranga R. Krishnan (all DBSA). According to a 2004 Stock Exchange report, in August 1998, Corcept granted McEwen an option to purchase 60,000 shares in common stock at $0.00033 per share. He serves as a Member of Scientific Advisory Board at Helicor, Inc. (private company categorized under Stress Reducing Equipment, Electric, with an estimated annual revenue of $1.1 million. It sells a “StressEraser,” a handheld medical device designed to “calm the mind and relax the body.” Current estimates show this company has an annual revenue of $1.1 million.)
- J. JOHN MANN, MD, Professor of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute Department of Neuroscience College of Physicians and Surgeons Columbia University, New York, NY; Director of Research and Director of Molecular Imaging and the Neuropathology Division at the NYSPI. Director of the NIMH Conte Center for the Neuroscience of Mental Disorders, and Past President of the International Academy of Suicide Research. He is a member of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP), an organization of psychiatrists with significant financial support from the manufacturers of psychotropic drugs. Mann was Co-Chair of an ACNP Task Force investigating SSRI antidepressants, the findings of which were released in January 2004, shortly before an FDA Hearing was to be held into whether the drugs caused suicide in youths. ANCP announced it did not find any increased risk of suicide in children and adolescents. “The evidence linking SSRIs to suicide is weak,” said Mann. “There are strong lines of evidence in youth—from clinical trials, epidemiology and autopsy studies—that led the ACNP Task Force to conclude that SSRIs do not cause suicide in youth with depression.” The FDA found differently and issued a black box warning about suicide in October 2004.
- The ACNP Task Force included: Frederick Goodwin and Karen Wagner (who would later come under Congressional scrutiny because of their conflicts of interest with Pharma) and Jan Fawcett, and David Shaffer—both psychiatrists with strong ties to the pharmaceutical industry and psychiatric front groups. Shaffer has a vested interest in not restricting antidepressant use: He developed Columbia University’s TeenScreen program to screen all students for depression and be prescribed antidepressants.
- In 2006, when the FDA was considering raising the age to 24 for its Black Box Warning on antidepressants causing suicide, Mann suggested instead that the proposed expanded warnings be replaced with the recommendation that doctors more closely monitor their patients. “We can do more good by providing more treatment for depressed children and adults,” Mann said.
- Mann’s Financial Disclosure: In that ACNP report supporting antidepressant use, Mann disclosed: Consultant: GSK, Pfizer, 2001 (expert trial witness) Grants/Research Support: Pfizer, attended 2002 GSK Advisory group meeting on lamotrigine (Lamactil, a mood stabilizer). Later: Research support: GSK. Advisor: Eli Lilly and Lundbeck.
- JOHN S. MARCH, MD, MPH, Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke Child and Family Study Center Durham, NC. He was also a member of the NAMI Task Force into Children and Psychotropic Medications, the report on which was released in June 2004. Not surprisingly, the report recommended more research to be conducted into “early onset mental disorders,” that “children should only be diagnosed and treated by the best qualified mental health professionals and properly trained medical professionals.” The report touted the unsubstantiated statistic that 80% of youths with mental illness are not identified and need treatment. March is also affiliated with Anxiety Disorders Association of America (ADAA), Obsessive-Compulsive Foundation (OCF), Tourette’s Syndrome Association (TSA), and has received a NARSAD award (2006). Financial Disclosure: Consultant or scientific advisor: Pfizer, Lilly, Wyeth, GSK, Jazz, and MedAvante. Stock in MedAvante (a company that develops and provides assessments to be administered during clinical CNS (Central Nervous System) trials. Research support: Lilly and study drug for an NIMH-funded study from Lilly and Pfizer.
- HELEN S. MAYBERG, M.D, Professor, Psychiatry and Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Known for using neuroimaging to try and find brain patterns in depression–research she has undertaken for 20 years and now researches Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), a practice involving implantation of a device that sends electrical impulses to specific parts of the brain, and has been supported by a Distinguished Investigator Award from NARSAD and is on NARSAD’s Scientific Council. Mayberg was awarded the Arnold Pfeffer Prize in Neuropsychoanalysis with her colleague Mario Liotti MD, PhD, in 2003, the NARSAD Falcone Prize in Mood Disorders Research in 2007, and was the Emil Kraeppelin Professor at the Max-Planck Institute of Psychiatry in Munich in 2008. In 2003, she was appointed an advisory board member of Cyberonics, joining Charles Nemeroff, Dennis Charney (see above), for its development of VNS (brain implant) therapy.
- Mayberg financial Disclosure: Advisor/consultant: Cyberonics and Advanced Neuromodulation Systems, AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly, GSK, and Novartis. Has patent license from Advanced Neuromodulation Systems. Grants/research: Canadian Institutes of Health Research, NIMH, and NARSAD.
- DAVID J. MIKLOWITZ, PHD, Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO: NIMH Postdoctoral Research Fellow, NARSAD Postdoctoral Fellow. Author of The Bipolar Disorder Survival Guide and the Bipolar Teen, among other books on the subject. Financial Disclosure: NIMH, NARSAD, the Robert Sutherland Foundation, the Danny Alberts Foundation. Financial Disclosure: Funding from NIMH, NARSAD, the Robert Sutherland Foundation, the Danny Alberts Foundation, and book royalties from Guilford Press and John Wiley and Sons. Speakers Bureau: Eli Lilly.
- RICARDO F. MUNOZ, PhD., Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychiatry at University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Director of the UCSF/San Francisco General Hospital Latino Mental Health Research Program. He is a “depression prevention and treatment researcher.” Financial Disclosure: NIMH.
- ERIC J. NESTLER, MD, Professor and Chairman, Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. In August 2008, he joined Mount Sinai School of Medicine as Director of the Mount Sinai Brain Institute and Chairman of the Department of Neuroscience—looking for a biological cause for mental disorders. He co-authored Neurobiology of Mental Illness, with Dennis S. Charney (see above). He has been Deputy Editor of Biological Psychiatry. Member of The Dana Foundation.
- Financial Disclosure: $10,000 or less from: Scientific Advisory Board for EPIX Pharmaceuticals, Intra-Cellular Therapies, Inc., NeuroMolecular Pharmaceuticals and RxGen. Greater than $10,000: Scientific Advisory Board for Merck Research Labs, Neurologix, Inc and he was Founder and Chair of the Scientific Advisory Board for PsychoGenics. Psychogenics is a research and business development company in the fields of chem.- and psychopharmacology, and robotics. Provides CNS drug “discovery solutions, helps pharmaceutical companies and not-for-profit organizations to validate targets and select compounds to advance in clinical trials.” In August 2009, PsychoGenics announced it had entered into drug discovery and development agreement with AstraZeneca to identify compounds likely to be useful for the treatment of certain Central Nervous System disorders.
- CHARLES P. O’BRIEN, MD, PhD., Vice Chair of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, Director of Psychiatric Research at the Philadelphia Veteran’s Administration Medical Center (VAMC), past President of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP) and the Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease (ARNMD)—a society of neurologists, psychiatrists, and scholars. DBSA members Eric Nestler, Bruce S. McEwen are Trustees of ARNMD, along with Herbert Pardes; corresponding trustees include O’Brien and other DBSA advisory board members Dwight L. Evans and David J. Kupfer.
- O’Brien is a paid consultant to Cephalon and has excused the dangers of at least one of their drugs. In 2006, the FDA’s Psychopharmacology Advisory Committee reviewed the risks of the “ADHD” drug modafinil (Sparlon), causing Steven-Johnson’s, a rare but potentially fatal, skin condition. The Committee and the FDA recommended that Cephalon provide additional data about that risk. [In 2008, the FDA ordered a change to the labeling of modafinil—marketed as Provigil—to warn about “Stevens-Johnson syndrome and hypersensitivity reactions—as well as psychiatric symptoms.”]
- Physician’s Desk Reference also says that modafinil is likely to be as “reinforcing” (i.e., addictive) as cocaine and “produces psychoactive and euphoric effects, alterations in mood, perception, thinking and feelings typical of other CNS stimulants….Modafinil is reinforcing, as evidenced by its self-administration in monkeys previously trained to self-administer cocaine….” To overcome the documented adverse event profile disclosed in the label, O’Brien published a report in the American Journal of Psychiatry (August 2005), denying modafinil’s addictive and euphoric effect. This prompted renowned psychiatrist Stefan Kruszewski to challenge O’Brien’s findings saying he had misrepresented the addictive qualities if the drug. O’Brien’s comments were also contradicted by the FDA in its warning letter of Jan. 14, 2002, addressing modafinil’s abuse potential and euphoric effects. A 2009 study found modafinil had greater risk of abuse and addiction than previously thought.
- O’Brien acknowledges “Drugs and alcohol, when taken in large enough amounts and over an extended period of time produce biological changes in the brain, permanent and physical changes. Any therapy which ignores that fact will be useless.” Yet he differentiates between these and prescribed psychiatric drugs—with known addiction potential—that alter and damage the brain.
- O’Brien’s Financial Disclosure: Consultant/Advisory Board: American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, Alkermes, Cephalon, Eli Lilly, US World Meds, Forest, Johnson and Johnson, McNeil, Merck, Sanofi-Aventis, Wyeth. Grant/research support: Pfizer and Sanofi-Aventis. Honoraria: Pfizer, Sherling-Plough and GSK. Testified for Purdue Pharma.
- DANIEL S. PINE, MD, Branch Chief, Section on Emotional Development and Affective Neuroscience, NIMH-MAP, and Chief of Emotion and Development Branch in the Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program of NIMH’s Intramural Research Program. Pine moved to this position in the fall of 2000, after 10 years of training, teaching and research at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the New York State Psychiatric Institute and the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. He had received a NARSAD Independent Investigator Award, the Joel Elkes Award from the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, as well an Award from the American Psychiatric Association. He is involved in research on “therapeutics,” having served as Chair of the FDA Psychopharmacology Drug Advisory Board.
- ROBERT M. POST, MD, Chief, Biological Psychiatry Branch, NIMH. Post was Unit and Section Chief and then Chief of Biological Psychiatry at NIMH, a group that “won” research awards from NARSAD and NDMDA. He organized the Stanley Foundation Bipolar Network (1995-2002), now continuing as the Bipolar Collaborative Network that aims to increase studies into “bipolar”—and with his biological psychiatry background, most likely drug “solutions.” He is with Department of Psychiatry, George Washington University, Washington, DC, and Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania. Has conducted research on bipolar disorder with Melissa P. DelBello in 2005, funded by a grant from Eli Lilly. Member of The Dana Foundation.
- He was one of 10 people who developed “The Mood Disorder Questionnaire” to screen people for bipolar. These included DBSA Scientific Advisory Council members: Robert M.A. Hirschfeld, Joseph R. Calabrese, Paul E. Keck, Robert M. Post, and Gary S. Sachs, as well as Laurie Flynn, then with NAMI (now with TeenScreen); Lydia Lewis, from the then National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association (now DBSA) and Dr. Robert L. Spitzer, Columbia University and head of DSM-IV review.
- The questions include: Has there ever been a period of time when you were not your usual self and you were so irritable that you shouted at people or started fights or arguments? You felt much more self-confident than usual? You got much less sleep than usual and found you didn’t really miss it? You were so easily distracted by things around you that you had trouble concentrating or staying on track? You were much more interested in sex than usual? You had much more energy than usual?” The questionnaire is now used in studies, and is “one of the most commonly used of these assessment tools,” also made available through DBSA’s website. And this, despite even bipolar groups admitting, “Bipolar disorder is difficult to diagnose. There is currently no definitive medical test for this disorder. Furthermore, there are a number of physical conditions and quite a few psychiatric symptoms which present symptoms that can be confused with those of bipolar disorder.”
- Post’s Financial Disclosure: Consultant: AstraZeneca, Abbott Laboratories, Glaxo-Wellcome Pharmaceuticals, GSK, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, Shire and UCB Pharma. Speakers’ bureaus: Bristol-Myers Squibb and GSK.
- CHARLES F. REYNOLDS III, MD, Professor of Psychiatry, Neurology and Neuroscience, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA. 2009 president of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry (AAGP). Chair of the Sleep-Wake Disorders Work Group for the DSM-V Task Force. [The Task Force has been exposed for more than 27% of its members having financial ties to drug companies that may potentially influence what is inserted in DSM.] He directs the NIMH–sponsored Advanced Center for Interventions and Services Research in Late-Life Mood Disorders. Vice President and member, Scientific Advisory Board of the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention.
- In a study he co-authored on “pharmacologic interventions for geriatric depression,” O’Brien endorsed an expert geriatric consensus guideline to use antidepressants and “Atypical antipsychotics”—risperidone (Janssen), olanzapine (Eli Lilly), and quetiapine (AstraZeneca) as “the first-line choices” and also recommended Electroshock treatment for the elderly. Reynolds is one of the authors of the 2001 “expert guidelines” which were written with an unrestricted grant from Forest Pharmaceuticals and with the help of NARSAD and NAMI. The guidelines recommend brand name SSRI antidepressants (including those made by Forest) and antipsychotics. Specifically, “A number of new antipsychotics are available that are effective and much less likely to cause serious side effects than older medications of this kind. For psychotic depression in an older patient, the “experts” recommend risperidone (Risperdal), olanzapine (Zyprexa), and quetiapine (Seroquel), and would also consider ziprasidone (Geodon), a recently approved antipsychotic.” In 2003, the FDA added a black-box warning to the labels of six atypical antipsychotics about the potential of the drugs to cause sometimes fatal diabetes mellitus (the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or when cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced.) In 2005, the FDA ordered an additional black box warning because of increased risk of death to the elderly (with dementia) taking antipsychotics.
- Financial Disclosure: GSK, Forest, Pfizer, Eli Lilly, BMS, Wyeth and John D. Hartford Foundation. Received pharmaceutical supplies for his NIH-sponsored research from GSK, Pfizer Inc., Eli Lilly, Bristol Meyers Squibb, and Forest. Research Support: Pfizer; Forest; GSK; Bristol Meyers Squibb; Eli Lilly; Wyeth.
- DAVID RUBINOW, MD, Professor and chair of psychiatry, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill. He was Clinical Director of the NIMH from 1987-2006 and the Chief of the Behavioral Endocrinology Branch, NIMH from 1996-2006. He is a member of a number of professional organizations including member of the Executive Council and president elect of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP) and past president and currently Executive Secretary of the Society of Biological Psychiatry. He co-wrote with DBSA advisory board members Martin Keller (financial ties to multiple pharmaceutical companies, some of which he failed to disclose) and Ned Kalin (stockholder in Corcept Therapeutics, CeNeRx Bio Pharma), “Mood and Anxiety Disorders: The Complexities of Integrating Syndromes.” While at NIMH, he defended Eli Lilly’s repackaging Prozac as Sarafem—a “new” treatment for “premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD),” which even psychiatrists ague doesn’t exist. Rubinow dismissed the concerns as politics, not science and said that women in stress should accept an effective treatment when available—despite the drug’s risks.
- Financial Disclosure: Stock, stock options, or bonds in Amgen (biotechnology company). Stockholder in Vanguard Health Mutual Fund. Consultant: Azevan Pharmaceutical. In 2004, while employed by NIMH he was Consultant for Vela Pharmaceuticals and received Financial or Material Support from TheraTech, Bristol-Myers Squibb and Women’s Pharmacy of Madison. In 2000, he disclosed Dista Products, TAP Pharmaceuticals, Ciba Geigy, Upsure Smith and Eli Lilly.
- NEAL RYAN, MD, Professor of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute & Clinic Pittsburgh, PA: Ryan was co-author of the infamous Paxil study 329 exposed by the BBC in 2007. The study, conducted over 10 years, showed no measurable benefit to child patients. In fact children taking the drug suffered serious adverse reactions, including self-harm—mostly cutting; aggression—violent to others; and suicidality—suicidal thoughts and actions, suicide attempts. Almost 8% of the children had to be hospitalized as a result. GSK’s executives realized that the results of Study 329 would ensure that no license would be granted for its use in children. So the self-harm, aggression and suicide attempts were kept quiet, the lack of effectiveness filed away. Ryan with DBSA members Karen Wagner and Professor Martin Keller wrote a paper on the study (Keller had made $500,000 in fees from drug companies including GSK). Ryan was paid by GSK as a co-author of the study.
- Ryan was on the 2004 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP) Task force with J. John Mann (above Board member) that found no evidence that SSRI antidepressants caused suicide in children and adolescents—although this had already been substantiated by the UK drug regulatory agency that had issued recommended against any SSRI antidepressant usage in under 18 year olds. The ACNP receives a substantial share of its revenue from pharmaceutical industry grants. Ryan continues to conduct studies of antidepressant use in adolescents, partnering with Karen Wagner, Martin Keller, and others with financial ties to antidepressant makers.
- In 2002 he gave a talk on childhood depression at a medical conference in Toronto sponsored by GSK, attended by 15,000 psychiatrists. He said that Paxil could be a suitable treatment for children and that it probably lowered rather than raised suicide rates. Court records show otherwise.
- Financial Disclosure: In the year that the BBC exposed the flaws in study 329, Ryan reported that he had participated in speaker’s bureaus many years ago but had declined to do so since. He says he is currently not serving on any advisory boards and does not receive any research support from private companies.
- GARY SACHS, MD, Founder and Director of the Bipolar Clinic and Research Program, Harvard University Boston, MA: Served as a Principal Investigator of the NIHM Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD), the largest treatment study ever conducted for “bipolar disorder.” He claims without scientific evidence that bipolar is a brain disease and to present it otherwise is stigmatizing. He was principal investigator of other studies on bipolar and is currently co-Investigator of two other NIMH studies.
- Sach’s Financial Disclosure: Owns stock, stock options, or bonds in Concordant Rater Systems, LLC; Speaker’s Bureaus: Abbott, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, GSK, Janssen, and Eli Lilly. Grants/support: Abbott, GSK, Janssen, Repligen, Pfizer and Wyeth. Advisory Boards: Abbott, GSK, Janssen, Eli Lilly, and Pfizer. Consultant: Abbott, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, GSK, Eli Lilly, Janssen, JDS, Memory, Novartis, Repligen, Pfizer, Sanofi, Sigma-Tau, Solvay, and Wyeth. Honoraria: Abbott, GSK, Janssen, Eli Lilly, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Solvay, Novartis, Sanofi, AstraZeneca, and Pfizer.
- MARTHA SAJATOVIC, MD, Director, Geriatric Psychiatry Research, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH: Received honors or awards from NIMH, NAMI, and DBSA. Member of the pharmaceutical-company developed Collegium Internationale NeuroPsychopharmacologicum (CINP). NAMI Exemplary Psychiatrist Award (2003); DBSA Award (2006). Financial Disclosure: Grants for clinical research: Abbott, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, GSK and AstraZeneca; Advisor/consultant: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, GSK, Janssen, Cognition Group, and UBC. Speakers Bureau: AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Janssen and Pfizer.
- ALAN F. SCHATZBERG, MD, Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Chairman, Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Stanford University/School of Medicine Stanford, CA: As exposed in The New York Times, he owned $6 million equity in drug developer Corcept Therapeutics (see above) at the same time that he was principle investigator in an NIH-funded, Stanford-based study of Corcept’s drug mifepristone. Schatzberg had initiated the patent application on mifepristone to “treat psychotic depression” in 1997. He co-founded Corcept in 1998, and in 1999, extended the NIH grant for the study of psychotic depression to include mifepristone. In 2008, Schatzberg stepped down from his position as principal investigator in the study following months of Congressional scrutiny regarding his financial ties to the drug industry.
- Pursuant to a consulting agreement with Corcept, Schatzberg received compensation of $60,000 as chair of the scientific advisory board in 2002 and $60,000 for his services as chair in 2003. He co-edited the Textbook of Psychopharmacology with Nemeroff.
- · Financial Disclosure: Grants for clinical research and educational activities, Board of Directors of; Stock, stock options, bonds or equity in Corcept, Cypress Biosciences, Elan, Merck, and Pfizer: Further grants: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, and Wyeth. Consultant and speaker for Abbott, Aventis, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Corcept, Eli Lilly, Forest, GSK, Innapharma, Janssen, Merck, Novartis, Neuronics, Organon, Pharmacia, Solvay, Somerset (Mylan), and Wyeth.
- EDWARD SCOLNICK, MD, Director, Psychiatric Disease Initiative, Broad Institute of Harvard and M.I.T., Professor of the Practice, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. In 2008, he was appointed to the Board of Directors and Scientific Advisory Board of Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc, a leading RNAi (technique for gene slicing; RNA is structurally similar to DNA) therapeutics company. From 1982 to 2003, Scolnick served in a number of key leadership roles at Merck Research Laboratories, and is its president emeritus. Also serves on the board of directors for Millipore Corporation (provides technologies, tools, and services for bioscience research and biopharmaceutical manufacturing) and served as a member of the Food and Drug Administration Science Board from 2000 to 2002.
- Scolnick was Merck’s chief scientist during the Vioxx scandal (an anti-inflammatory drug used for the treatment of pain that caused serious heart disease). In 2000, he wrote in an email to colleagues about the cardiovascular risk and called for Merck to do a cardiovascular study to insure that the drug was safe. Such a study never took place. The “VIGOR” study instead was published, obscuring the cardiovascular risk. Merck strongly promoted the VIGOR study, purchasing nearly 1 million reprints to circulate to doctors and other health professionals. Merck conceived of an ADVANTAGE study called “Assessment of Differences between Vioxx and Naproxen to Ascertain Gastrointestinal Tolerability and Effectiveness” to use as “a promotional tool to introduce about 600 physicians to Vioxx.” Skolnick called the study “stupid” and “intellectually redundant and extremely dangerous.” One of the study’s researchers concluded that a 73 year-old participant had most likely died of a heart attack. Yet in an email message, Skolnick urged the researcher to change the cause of death “so that we don’t raise concerns.” The published report listed the cause of death as, “unknown.” Years later (and after remaining at Merck for another four years) he testified before the FDA that in two clinical trials, death was more than two times as likely for those on Vioxx. The FDA estimated that between 1999 and 2003 (when it was pulled from the market) Vioxx could have contributed to 27,785 heart attacks and sudden cardiac deaths.
- Financial Disclosure: Stockholder: Merck and Co., Renovis, Inc., TransForm Pharmaceuticals, Oscient. He also serves on the Board of Directors for Renovis Inc.; Transform Pharmaceutics, Inc. and on the Medical and Scientific Advisory Board for MPM Capital that works towards identifying “risk genes” for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
- DAVID SHAFFER, MD, Irving Philips Professor of Psychiatry, Director, Department of Child Psychiatry Columbia University, New York, NY. He was a member of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP) Task Force investigating SSRI antidepressants. In January 2004, shortly before an FDA Hearing was to be held into whether the drugs caused suicide in youths, ACP released its report claiming it could not find evidence of any increased risk of suicide in children and adolescents—a fact the FDA disagreed with, slapping a black box warning on SSRI antidepressants, alerting people about the suicide risk.
- Shaffer invented TeenScreen to screen large numbers of high-school students as a “captive audience” to identify them at risk for suicide and ensure they receive treatment (drugs, especially antidepressants). By 2003, it had been used on middle- and high-school students and was screening more broadly for all mental illness in addition to the risk factors for suicide. It was released through an organization called PATH: (Positive Action for Teen Health), with LAURIE FLYNN, former director of NAMI, as PATH’s National Director. PATH’s stated purpose included: “to ensure that every American teen receives a mental health check-up before graduating from high school.” Shaffer admited that there is a potential 84% chance children screened could be wrongly identified as suicidal. The advisory board of PATH included former NIMH Director Herbert Pardes (who advocated the establishment of “advocacy” groups in the 1980s that could lobby for additional funds to NIMH). Also on the board of the Jed Foundation.
- TeenScreen’s PR firm, Rabin Strategic Partners, has long standing ties to the drug industry. Among its clients are Janssen Pharmaceutica, Johnson & Johnson, and Merck, to name a few. In 2005, Rabin also hired a former Bristol-Meyers executive and the communications director for Columbia University’s Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry—headed by Shaffer.
- In 2003, the New York Times reported that Shaffer had written to the UK’s drug regulatory agency urging them not to restrict the use of antidepressants on children and adolescents, claiming—wrongly—that there was sufficient evidence to show the drugs caused suicide.
- Shaffer also led a team of colleagues and investigators in developing and modifying the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC). The computerized DISC was initially developed as a means of assigning a diagnosis in large-scale surveys but is now in regular use to aid “diagnosis” (labeling kids with mental illness to be drugged.)
- He is Chair of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Work Group on Research, which receives funding support from multiple funding sources, including pharmaceutical companies, NIH, and non-profit organizations. He is also President-elect of the International Society of Suicide Research.
- Financial Disclosure: Consultant: Hoffman La Roche, Wyeth and GSK. Member of a consensus panel discussing “bipolar” by Abbott, Bristol-Myers Squibb, GSK, Janssen, Johnson & Johnson, Eli Lilly, Novartis, Pfizer, and Solvay. Been an expert trial witness for Wyeth.
- TRISHA (PATRICIA) SUPPES, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Stanford University, V.A. Palo Alto Health Care System; Adjunct Professor, Department of Psychiatry, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford School of Medicine. She was Director of the Bipolar Disorder Research Program at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and Director of the Bipolar Disorder Module for the Texas Implementation of Medication Algorithms (TIMA).
- Considered “Phase 4” of the implementation of the psychiatric-Pharma invented program, TMAP, TIMA provides algorithms (flow charts) recommending physicians prescribe specific expensive psychiatric drug treatment for major depression, psychotic depression, bipolar etc. (antidepressants, antipsychotics). “The roll-out of TIMA has begun with the training of physicians and support personnel in algorithm implementation,” the TIMA manual for physicians states. The manual acknowledges TMAP and its unrestricted educational grants from Abbott, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Forest, Glaxo-Wellcome, Inc., Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, U.S. Pharmacopeia and Wyeth-Ayerst.
- Suppes is a member of the DSM-V Review, Mood Disorders Work Group. Also an associate editor on the American Journal of Psychiatry Editorial Board and is on the Board of councilors for the International Society for Bipolar Disorders, as well as being a member of the APA Work Group for the Practice Guidelines for Bipolar Disorder. She is a member of the International Society for the Affective Disorders, the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP), and the Society of Biological Psychiatry’s Program Planning Committee.
- Financial Disclosure: Grant/Research Support: Abbott, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, GSK, Janssen, Novartis, NIMH, Robert Wood Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Institute, The Stanley Medical Research Institute. Consulting agreements/advisory boards: Abbott, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly Research Laboratories, GSK, Janssen, Johnson & Johnson Research & Development, Pfizer, Pharmaceutical Research Institute (PRI), Ortho McNeil, Shire, Solvay, UCB Pharma, and Novartis. Other financial disclosures: Center for Medical Knowledge, CME (Continuing Medical Education) LLC, Compact Clinicals/Dean Psych Press Corp, Consensus Medical Communications, GR Med Ed, Inc., InforMed Direct, IntraMed, JDS Pharmaceuticals, LLC, MBL Communications, Inc., Medscape, PSYCHCME, Schlesinger Medical, Orexigen Therapeutics, Inc., Solvay Pharmaceuticals and Wyeth Pharmaceuticals (shown combined as this was a business collaboration on a new drug under study in 2005).
- HELEN VERDELI, PhD,Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychology and Education at Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY. She is also an adjunct Assistant Professor at the New York State Psychiatric Institute, where she has been teaching psychotherapy to psychiatric residents, postdoctoral fellows and psychology interns. Received a NARSAD Young Investigator Award. Verdeli is a member of the Mental Health Advisory Committee for the Millennium Villages Project (combats poverty in rural Africa) of the Earth Institute at Columbia University (directed by Jeffrey Sachs), a member of the Scientific Advisory Council of the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. “The Millennium Village Project (MVP): Sustainable Development and Mental Health” is located at the World Bank Headquarters. In 2007, mental health services were not part of the MVP beneficiary package. However “interest in the role of mental health” led the MVP to pilot for the integration of mental health services.”
- KAREN DINEEN WAGNER, MD, PhD, Vice Chair, Dept. of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Director, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. Between 2000 and 2008, Wagner was engaged in an NIH study on the use of Paxil to treat teenage depression and another study on teen anxiety. During this time, GSK paid Wagner $160,404, yet she only reported $600 in income to the university. Eli Lilly also paid her over $11,000 in 2002 and that money was not disclosed either.
- In 2000, the first year of the NIH grant, Dr. Wagner, who is based at the University of Texas, received $53,000 from GSK, which included a trip to Paris to speak at a company meeting. From 2003 to 2004, while receiving additional funds from GSK, she served on the university committee policing conflict of interest.
- Wagner was a co-author of the infamous Brown University study 329 on Paxil (along with fellow DBSA advisory council members Martin Keller—the lead author—Barbara Geller and Neal Ryan) who exaggerated the alleged benefits of the antidepressant and downplayed the risks—including self-harm—mostly cutting; aggression—violent to others; and suicidality—suicidal thoughts and actions, suicide attempts. Almost 8% of the children had to be hospitalized as a result. The authors concluded: “Paroxetine is generally well tolerated and effective for major depression in adolescents.” Study 329 was cited in a New York case where GSK was charged with “repeated and persistent fraud” in suppressing research on paroxetine that had shown increased the risk of suicidal thoughts and actions in children taking it. On June 3, 2004 GSK paid $2.5 million to settle the lawsuit.
- Wagner was a member of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP) Task Force investigating SSRI antidepressants causing suicide in children and adolescents. The organization’s psychiatrists have significant financial support from the manufacturers of psychotropic drugs. In January 2004, shortly before an FDA Hearing was to be held into this issue, ACNP released its report claiming it could not find evidence of any increased risk of suicide in children and adolescents—a fact the FDA disagreed with, slapping a black box warning on SSRI antidepressants alerting people about the suicide risk 9 months later.
- In September 2003, the Journal of the American Medical Association published the results from two trials of children treated with Pfizer’s antidepressant Zoloft. Seventeen children who were given the drug were pulled out of the trial because of side effects, compared with five who were given a placebo. Only 10% more children “improved” on the drug than improved on a placebo. The researchers—led by Wagner—nonetheless concluded “the results of this pooled analysis demonstrate that sertraline [Zoloft] is an effective and well-tolerated short-term treatment for children and adolescents with major depressive disorder.” Yet a month later and subsequent to a UK ban on another antidepressant use in children, The Guardian newspaper asked Wagner if she considered both drugs still safe. She replied: “I think it requires further investigation and looking at the entire database of these medications.”
- In 2004, she and colleagues proposed “Treatment Guidelines for Children and Adolescents With Bipolar Disorder: Child Psychiatric Workgroup on Bipolar Disorder.” The project was supported by unrestricted educational grants from Abbott Laboratories, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Eli Lilly, Forest Pharmaceuticals, Janssen Pharmaceutical, Novartis, and Pfizer. Not surprisingly, the recommended treatment was from a list of more than 10 psychotropic drugs, largely mood stabilizers and antipsychotics.
- Financial Disclosure: Research/support: Abbott Laboratories, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Forest, GSK, Novartis, Organon, Otsuka, Janssen, Pfizer, UCB Pharma, and Wyeth-Ayerst and NIMH. Consultant/Advisory Board: Abbott, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Forest, Janssen, Novartis, Otsuka, Pfizer, Sanofi Aventis, Solvay and Wyeth-Ayerst. Speaker’s bureau: Janssen. Member of the scientific advisory board: Abbott, Eli Lilly, Forest, GSK, Novartis, Otsuka, Janssen, Pfizer, UCB Pharma, and Wyeth-Ayerst.
- KENNETH WELLS, MD, MPH; Professor of Psychiatry, UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute, Los Angeles, RAND Corporation and directs the Health Services Research Center of the Jane and Terry Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior. He is the Principal Investigator of the NIMH-UCLA/RAND Center for Research on Quality in Managed Care and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Community Partnership Initiative. He is also Co-Director of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation UCLA Clinical Scholars Program and Chair of the Community Health Improvement Collaborative.
- Wells and colleagues proposed plans that would enable mental health workers to take advantage of disasters like Hurricane Katrina to inject their services, anticipating it would cost $12.5 billion to help a population of around 11 million with mental health care. Nearly half this amount would be spent in months seven through 12 “due to screening and an initial surge in need.” For that amount, between 30,000 and 40,000 new homes could be built for victims of such disasters.
- Wells’ Financial Disclosure: Grants/research: Eli Lilly, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Pfizer Foundation, Fogarty International Center, Pan American Health Organization, Ortho-McNeil, GSK, Bristol-Myers Squibb.
- JOHN M. ZAJECKA, MD, Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Clinical Director, Treatment Research Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago. He also serves on the scientific advisory board for the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, past Co-Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Board Member for the Obsessive-Compulsive Foundation of Metropolitan Chicago and past President of the Midwest Chapter of the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention.
- He was one of 10 people who developed “The Mood Disorder Questionnaire” to screen people for bipolar or “mood disorders.” These included DBSA Scientific Advisory Council members: Robert M.A. Hirschfeld, Joseph R. Calabrese, Paul E. Keck, Robert M. Post, Gary S. Sachs, as well as Laurie Flynn, then with NAMI (now with TeenScreen); Lydia Lewis, from the then National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association (now DBSA) and Dr. Robert L. Spitzer, Columbia University and head of DSM-IV review.
- Zajecka’s Financial Disclosure: Grant and research support: Abbott, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Cephalon, Cyberonics, Inc., Forest, Glaxo Wellcome, Johnson & Johnson, MIICRO, Inc., McNeil, Novartis, Organon, Otsuka America, Parke-Davis, Pfizer, Pharmacia & Upjohn, PamLab, Somaxon and Sanofi Research. Consultant/Advisory Boards: Abbott, Biovail, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Eli Lilly, Otsuka, PamLab, and Wyeth-Ayerst. Speakers’ bureaus: Abbott, AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cyberonics, Eli Lilly, Pfizer/Roerig, SmithKline Beecham, GSK, Upjohn Co, and Wyeth-Ayerst.
Recent Former DBSA Advisory Board Members
The following psychiatrists—all under Senate Finance Committee investigation for undisclosed pharmaceutical company funding in 2008, are listed as advisory board members for the period 2005-2007. The board members appear to have changed in 2008.
- JOSEPH BIEDERMAN, MD, Chief, Joint Program, Pediatric Psychopharmacology Mass General and McLean Hospitals, Professor of Psychiatry Harvard Medical School Boston, MA. Investigated by US Senate Finance Committee for conflicts of interest with pharmaceutical companies. He earned at least $1.6 million in consulting fees from drug makers from 2000 to 2007 but failed to report all but about $200,000 of this income to university officials. Court documents dating over several years also showed that Dr. Biederman told Johnson & Johnson that planned studies of its psychotropic drugs in children would yield results benefiting the company. Biederman was director of the Johnson & Johnson Center for Pediatric Psychopathology Research at Massachusetts General Hospital, in Boston. His studies—largely funded by drug companies—helped to fuel a controversial 40-fold increase from 1994 to 2003 in the diagnosis of pediatric “bipolar disorder.”
- Biederman Financial Disclosure: Research support, served on a speaker’s bureau, or has been on the advisory board: Shire, Eli Lilly, Pfizer, McNeil, Abbott, Bristol-Myers-Squibb, New River Pharmaceuticals, Cephalon, Janssen, L.P., Novartis, UCB Pharma, AstraZeneca, Forest, GSK and Neurosearch. Private foundation research support: Stanley Medical Institute, Inc, Lilly Foundation, Prechter Foundation and from NIMH, NICHD, and NIDA.
- FREDERICK K. GOODWIN, MD, Director, Center on Neuroscience, Medical Progress and Society, George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC. Former NIMH director, joining NMIH in 1965. He also served from 1981 to 1988 as NIMH Scientific Director and chief of Intramural Research. He is a fellow of American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP). Host of national radio show, The Infinite Mind on NPR that advocated biological treatments for “mental illness.” Goodwin did not disclose to NPR that he had financial ties to drug makers , which recently came under U.S. Senate investigation. Goodwin’s acceptance from 2000 to 2007 of $1.3 million in speaking fees from GSK was reported in The New York Times in November 2008. In a program broadcast on Sept. 20, 2005, he warned that children with bipolar disorder who were left untreated could suffer brain damage. “But as we’ll be hearing today,” Dr. Goodwin told his audience, “modern treatments—mood stabilizers in particular—have been proven both safe and effective in bipolar children.” That same day, GSK paid Goodwin $2,500 to give a promotional lecture for its mood stabilizer drug, Lamictal, at the Ritz Carlton Golf Resort in Naples, Fla. GSK paid him more than $329,000 that year for promoting Lamictal.
- While head of the now disbanded Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA), Goodwin made remarks that compared inner city African American youth to hypersexual monkeys living in a jungle, and who just want to kill each other, have sex and reproduce. Goodwin was advocating a “Violence Initiative” program that would have drugged African American and Hispanic youth (with Prozac) to curb their inherent violent behavior. Ten days of escalating media debate and criticism ensued, at the end of which Goodwin issued an apology. Goodwin resigned as head of ADAMHA.
- Goodwin’s Financial Disclosure: Consultant: Glaxo-Wellcome, Eli Lilly, Pfizer and Scios. Speakers’ Bureau: Glaxo-Wellcome, Janssen, Eli Lilly, Pfizer, and Scios. Also, Abbott, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Forest, GSK, Sanofi-Aventis and Solvay.
- CHARLES NEMEROFF MD. At Duke University he was Professor of Psychiatry and Pharmacology and Chief of the Division of Biological Psychiatry before relocating in 1991 to Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia, where he was Professor of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. Received NAMI’s Young Scientist Award, a NARSAD award. With Alan F. Schatzberg, MD, he is the co-Editor of the Textbook of Psychopharmacology. He served on the Mental Health Advisory Council of NIMH and the Biomedical Research Council for NASA. He came under Senate investigation in 2008 for his failure to disclose to Emory University $1.2 million he had earned from Pharma, especially GSK. Nemeroff was the principal investigator for a five-year $3.9 million grant financed by the National Institute of Mental Health for which GSK provided drugs. Nemeroff signed a letter dated July 15, 2004, promising Emory administrators that he would earn less than $10,000 a year from GlaxoSmithKline to comply with federal rules. But on that day, he was at the Four Seasons Resort in Jackson Hole, Wyo., earning $3,000 of what would become $170,000 in income that year from that company — 17 times the figure he had agreed on. In December 2008, Nemeroff stepped down as chairman of Emory’s Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences after 17 years, following an investigation of conflicts of interest.
- In 2006, he forced to step down as editor of Neuropsychopharmacology over another conflicts of interest. He published a favorable review of the vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) device (electrode implants that send electrical currents through the brain), manufactured by Cyberonics. Nemeroff neglected to publish that he was a paid consultant for Cyberonics. In 2003, he had also coauthored a review in Nature Neuroscience about three therapies, failing to mention his significant financial interests in them, including owning the patent in one of the treatments—a lithium patch.
- Despite his conflicts, in November 2009, he was named Chairman of the psychiatry department at the University of Miami medical school.
- He also serves on the board of directors for another psycho-pharma front group, the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (AFSP) since 1999 and has “been a member of the Foundation’s Scientific Council for more than 10 years” as well as chair of the Council in 2007, then elected president in January 2008.
- Nemeroff’s Financial Disclosure: Grant support: AFSP, NARSAD and NIH. Scientific Advisory Board: AstraZeneca, Forest, Johnson & Johnson, Pharma Neuroboost, Quintiles, and NARSAD; Employed by: Serves on the Board of Directors: ASFP, American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education (APIRE), NovaDel Pharmaceuticals, and the George West Mental Health Foundation. Equity in CeNeRx and Reevax, and Stock: in Corcept and NovaDel.
- A. JOHN RUSH, MD, Currently Vice Dean Clinical Services, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore. Was Professor, Department of Psychiatry UT Southwestern Medical School Dallas, TX. He was the director of the controversial the Texas Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP) psychiatric drug program developed by drug companies for Texas to implement, using the most expensive psychotropic drugs. The state eventually filed a lawsuit against of the drug companies involved, Johnson & Johnson’s Jannsen unit, for allegedly using false advertising and improper influence—such as grants, trips and other perks—to get its Risperdal antipsychotic on the now-mandatory adult protocol. In 2008, Rush was under Senate investigation for his undisclosed conflicts of interest with Pharma: During 2003-2005, he received an NIH grant to conduct a clinical training program. Congress was told: “This program helped trainees understand how to conduct proper clinical trials and also dealt with medical ethics. However, just two years before getting this federal grant, Dr. Rush failed to report all of the money that Eli Lilly paid him. Dr. Rush disclosed $3,000 in payments from the company, but Eli Lilly…paid Dr. Rush $17,802 in 2001.” Also served as consultant for the Society of Psychotherapy Research and Society of Biological Psychiatry and Chaired the DSM-IV Work Group on Mood Disorders, chaired the Panel on Practice Guidelines for Depression in Primary Care for the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, served on the NIMH and VA’s merit review committees, and was awarded by NDMDA (1994).
- Rush’s Financial Disclosure: Grant research support: Abbott Laboratories, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cyberonics, Forest, Parke Davis, Glaxo-Wellcome, Janssen, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Eli Lilly, Meadows Foundation, NIMH, Novartis, Organon, Pfizer, Pharmacia & Upjohn, SmithKline Beecham, Stanley Foundation, Wyeth Ayerst and Zeneca. Consultant: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cyberonics, Forest, Parke Davis, Glaxo-Wellcome, Janssen, Eli Lilly, Merck, Mitsubishi Pharmaceuticals, NIMH, Organon, Pfizer, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Stanley Foundation, Wyeth Ayerst, and Yamanouchi. Speakers’ Bureau: Abbott, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cyberonics, Forest, Parke Davis, Glaxo-Wellcome, Eli Lilly, Organon, Pfizer, Pharmacia & Upjohn, and Wyeth Ayerst.
 “National Institute of Mental Health: Appropriations: Grants and Direct Operations,” NIH 1999 Almanac, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services — NIMH Funding: 1978-1986 $1,764,300,000 and 1987 – 1997 $5,699,210,000; “National Institute of Mental Health: Appropriations: Grants and Direct Operations,” NIH 2008 Almanac, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services — 1987-2008 $18,988,401,000.
 Josh Weinstein, “Public Relations: Why Advocacy Beats DTC,” Pharmaceutical Executive, 1 Oct. 2009. http://pharmexec.findpharma.com/pharmexec/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=129300&sk=&date=&pageID=1.
 http://www.dbsalliance.org/site/PageServer?pagename=dbsa_scienceboard; http://www.pharmalot.com/2008/11/harvards-biederman-and-his-ties-to-jj/; http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/22/health/22radio.html; http://www.pharmalot.com/2008/07/grassley-targets-browns-keller-over-grants/; http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/04/health/policy/04drug.html?_r=2&hp=&adxnnl=1&oref=slogin&adxnnlx=1223057208-yLGUJtDvWYfbOCZN1tb1pA; http://www.pharmalot.com/2008/10/emorys-nervous-nemeroff-reacts-to-a-probe/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+Pharmalot+%28Pharmalot%29; http://www.usnews.com/articles/news/national/2008/06/26/committee-questions-a-top-psychiatrist.html.
 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118809133/abstract? ; http://www.stepbd.org/; http://www.nimh.nih.gov/science-news/2007/study-sheds-light-on-medication-treatment-options-for-bipolar-disorder.shtml.
 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118809133/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0; http://www.stepbd.org/; http://www.nimh.nih.gov/science-news/2007/study-sheds-light-on-medication-treatment-options-for-bipolar-disorder.shtml.
 http://www.wpic.pitt.edu/Stanley/4thbipconf/introduction.htm, “Fourth International Conference on Bipolar Disorder,” http://www.measurecme.org/2007_RM/PDF/disclosures.pdf.
 http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=Press_Release_Archive&template=/contentmanagement/contentdisplay.cfm&ContentID=5697&title=NAMI+Recognizes+Outstanding+Psychiatrists; http://www.wpic.pitt.edu/stanley/7thbipconf/FacultyBios.htm.
 http://www.wpic.pitt.edu/Stanley/4thbipconf/introduction.htm, “Fourth International Conference on Bipolar Disorder,” http://22.214.171.124/ahrp/cms/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=345; http://www.projectsinknowledge.com/cp/index.cfm?jn=1830&thspage=cmeinfo.
 Gordon Thomas, Journey into Madness, Medical Torture and the Mind Controllers, (Corgi Books, 1989) p. 236; John J. McGraw, Brain & Belief, An Exploration of the Human Soul, (Aegis Press, 2004), p. 234. http://books.google.com/books?id=1QO8iqCeKjwC&pg=PT245&lpg=PT245&dq=josiah+macy+funded+CIA+experiments&source=bl&ots=FAVVgdbBzm&sig=S-YN48Cqj1q2p93rGalCDEl-5I4&hl=en&ei=NXEQS_ugCYnanAel-sm3Aw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CBgQ6AEwBTgo#v=onepage&q=josiah%20macy%20funded%20CIA%20experiments&f=false.
 David Armstrong, “Financial ties to industry cloud depression study,” The Wall Street Journal, 11 July 2006. http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/06192/705022-114.stm.
 http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/25/health/25news.html; http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:DbSaHTEJUb0J:www.nami.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Inform_Yourself/About_NAMI/Governance/Strategic_Planning/StratPlanConsolidatedJUN06_FINAL.doc+nami+cyberonics&cd=9&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=firefox-a.
 http://books.google.com/books?id=sYPmPjE1ElIC&pg=PA219&dq=dENNIS+cHARNEY+paid+by+cyberonics#v=onepage&q=dENNIS%20cHARNEY%20paid%20by%20cyberonics&f=false; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2684983/.
 http://www.wpic.pitt.edu/Stanley/4thbipconf/introduction.htm, “Fourth International Conference on Bipolar Disorder;” http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-195831812.html.
 http://www.depressioncenter.org/about/sab.asp; http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/488136/cyberonics_announces_1100th_patient_treated_with_vns_therapytm_for_treatmentresistant/index.html; http://www.medpagetoday.com/Psychiatry/Depression/3734.
 http://www.projectsinknowledge.com/cp/index.cfm?jn=1830&thspage=cmeinfo; http://books.google.com/books?id=i5zrVD1PAwEC&pg=PR22&lpg=PR22&dq=John+Greden+Promoter+Neurosciences&source=bl&ots=VrJ5oxnAld&sig=5kLuUhxeUNh8XR6KwvwHeENzl8U&hl=en&ei=m24qS_-SMouwswPIwuTBBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=John%20Greden%20Promoter%20Neurosciences&f=false
 http://www.wpic.pitt.edu/Stanley/4thbipconf/introduction.htm, “Fourth International Conference on Bipolar Disorder,”
 http://www.med.umich.edu/depression/DCNewsletterIssue1.pdf; Michigan Depression Center Network.
 http://www.empowermentzone.com/bipolar; http://www.mental-health-matters.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=621:bipolar-disorder-definition-and-treatment&catid=25:bipolar&Itemid=2060.
 http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/527672, Authors and Disclosures section; http://hcr3.isiknowledge.com/author.cgi?&link1=Browse&link2=Results&id=1693; http://hcr3.isiknowledge.com/author.cgi?&link1=Browse&link2=Results&id=1693v.
 http://www.wpic.pitt.edu/Stanley/4thbipconf/introduction.htm, “Fourth International Conference on Bipolar Disorder,” http://www.measurecme.org/2007_RM/PDF/disclosures.pdf.; http://cme.medscape.com/viewarticle/412807
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Comorbidity_Survey; http://www.hcp.med.harvard.edu/ncs/; http://pn.psychiatryonline.org/content/41/9/22.full?maxtoshow=&HITS=&hits=&RESULTFORMAT=1&andorexacttitle=and&titleabstract=ADHD+%2522social+status%2522+reward+dopamine&andorexacttitleabs=or&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=120&sortspec=relevan.
 The British Journal of Psychiatry (2009) 195: 46-53, http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/abstract/195/1/46.
 The British Journal of Psychiatry (2009) 195: 46-53, http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/abstract/195/1/46.
 http://www.thecommunityguide.org/about/task-force-members.html#johnson; http://www.thecommunityguide.org/about/TaskForceConclusions_092909.pdf; http://www.thecommunityguide.org/mentalhealth/depression-home.html.
 http://www.ahrp.org/cms/content/view/345/55/; http://www.cecentral.com/assets/723/men07333-03_content_final%20pdf.pdf; http://books.google.com/books?id=i5zrVD1PAwEC&pg=PR22&dq=John+Greden+Promoter+Neurosciences&ei=_6FxS8ymM47glQSwlaSuDQ&cd=1#v=onepage&q=John%20Greden%20Promoter%20Neurosciences&f=false
 David Healy, MD, The Anti-Depressant Era, (Harvard University Press, 1999), p. 47.
 http://investing.businessweek.com/research/stocks/people/person.asp?personId=9010070&capId=1423826&previousCapId=18739&previousTitle=Alta%20Partners; http://www.manta.com/coms2/dnbcompany_64ysqb; http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-142481930.html.
 http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/520659; http://books.google.com/books?id=f5BEk-6yO_4C&pg=PT17&lpg=PT17&dq=Helen+S.+Mayberg,+MD+cyberonics&source=bl&ots=_uLyYkqAlN&sig=szKAL7RbvLz2Vrl3pPVSIJBoodc&hl=en&ei=lWYUS4fPGIzIsAPRn7WMBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CB4Q6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=Helen%20S.%20Mayberg%2C%20MD%20cyberonics&f=false.
 http://www.psychiatrist.com/pcc/pccpdf/v07n01/v07n0104.pdf; http://www.psych.org/MainMenu/Research/DSMIV/DSMV/MeettheTaskForce/CharlesOBrienMDPhD.aspx; http://books.google.com/books?id=Xx7iNGdV25IC&pg=PT27&lpg=PT27&dq=Charles+P.+O%27Brien+MD,+eli+lilly&source=bl&ots=Us95Bo2bNC&sig=53WQK0Gqac4dG8gQQWM7qB4XISc&hl=en&ei=CXMUS535C5DssQPiqaT6Aw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CA4Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Charles%20P.%20O%27Brien%20MD%2C%20eli%20lilly&f=false; http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/300/17/2054.
 http://www.wpic.pitt.edu/Stanley/4thbipconf/introduction.htm, “Fourth International Conference on Bipolar Disorder.” http://www.measurecme.org/2007_RM/PDF/disclosures.pdf; http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/abstract/178/41/s169.
 Shaffer, David MD, “The Columbia SuicideScreen: Validity and Reliability of a Screen for Youth Suicide and Depression,” Journal Amer Acad Child Adoles Psychiatry, Vol. 43, pp. 71-79, 2004.
 Erica Goode, “British Warning on Antidepressant Use for Youth,” The New York Times, 11 Dec. 2003.
 http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/09/24/politics/uwire/main4473367.shtml; http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122109019382321441.html?mod=dist_smartbrief; http://www.pharmalot.com/2008/09/grassley-targets-another-academic-over-conflicts/.
 “Efficacy of Paroxetine in the Treatment of Adolescent Major Depression: A Randomized, Controlled Trial,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry: July 2001 – Volume 40 – Issue 7 – pp 762-772;
 “Efficacy of Paroxetine in the Treatment of Adolescent Major Depression: A Randomized, Controlled Trial,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry: July 2001 – Volume 40 – Issue 7 – pp 762-772;
 David B. Caruso, “GlaxoSmithKline begins releasing data on drug trials,” Associated Press, 2 Sept. 2004; The People of the State of New York, by Eliot Spitzer, Attorney General of the State of New York vs. GlaxoSmithKline.
 Sarah Boseley, health editor, “Scientist in rethink over drug link to suicide,” The Guardian, 1 Oct. 2003. http://www.guardian.co.uk/medicine/story/0,11381,1052978,00.html; http://www.healthyscepticism.org/global/library/item/1436/.
 http://www.dbsapages.org/Board_SAB/scienceboard.html; http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/member_information/practice_information/practice_parameters/conflicts_of_interest_for_practice_parameters_not_listed_in_parameter.
 http://www.wpic.pitt.edu/Stanley/4thbipconf/introduction.htm, “Fourth International Conference on Bipolar Disorder”.